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DRAFT - date at bottom of page - Under active development - DRAFT



CHECKLIST OF AMANITA TAXA RECORDED FOR EAST TEXAS 
& GULF COAST REGIONS OF LOUSIANA & MISSISSIPPI


Rodham E. Tulloss
P. O. Box 57
Roosevelt, NJ 08555-0057

David P. Lewis
262 CR 3062
Newton, TX 75966

Jay Justice
16055 Michele Dr.
Alexander, AR  72002-9668

Ronald L. Pastorino
14 Escalle Ln.
Larkspur, CA 94939-1294


This page is dedicated to the memories of
Dr. William Cibula &
Dr. Alexander H. Smith.

In this list of Amanita species, there are now 108? taxa of which 50? appear to be undescribed in the literature. Among the remaining 58? taxa there remain nine (9) European names that are undoubtedly based on incorrect determinations found in older literature.  We hope to purge incorrect determinations from the list eventually.  At present, the names of concern are as follows (in the order in which they appear in the checklist): A. gemmata, A. fulva, A. inaurata, A. vaginata, A. verna, A. citrina, A. rubescens, and A. spissa.  At the moment, however, we retain them as a goad to reach for greater clarity.

With regard to supraspecific taxa, this document follows (Corner and Bas, 1962) and (Bas, 1969).

Many good collections probably representing material that should be added to this list are among the collections of A. H. Smith in MICH. This list does not yet include taxa from Texas recorded in A. H. Smith's Ms. treatment of Amanita in the US--another problem that needs to be rectified.

Symbol key: A ”+” after a taxon name indicates it was collected at the 10th Texas Mycological Society foray in the Big Thicket National Preserve (October, 1986). An "@" in a similar position means the taxon was collected at the July, 1987 NAMA Gulf Coast Foray in southern Louisiana and Mississippi. An "H" in a similar position means the taxon was collected at the December, 1989 Harrison (MS) foray of the Gulf Coast Mycological Society. A "!" in a similar position means that the taxon was collected at the June, 2000 NAMA foray.

Photo credits not given on this page are to be found on individual species pages.

Background tile: Amanita levistriata

BIG THICKET ATBI

The Thicket of Diversity project (Big Thicket All-Taxa Biodiversity Inventory) was initiated in 2007 by the Big Thicket Association.  DPL is presently leader of the Fungus Taxonomic Working Group (TWIG) for this ATBI. Throughout this checklist, collecting site acronyms associated with the Thicket of Diversity project are in bold face type.

(t.b.d.)

COLLECTING SITE NAMES KEYS
[ Louisiana sites ]  [ Mississippi sites ]  [ Texas sites ]

EAST TEXAS GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION KEY

[ BTNP = Big Thicket National Preserve; SHNF = Sam Houston National Forest ]

T - no locality, eastern Texas
ARAN - Aransas Wildlife Refuge, Aransas Co.
BCR - Beech Creek Unit, BTNP, Tyler Co.
BCSA - Big Creek Scenic Area, SHNF, San Jacinto Co.
BEAU - Beaumont Unit, BTNP, Hardin, Jefferson & Orange Cos.
BLKW - Bleakwood, Newton Co.
BMNT - Beaumont, Jefferson Co.
BSCC - Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit, BTNP, Hardin, Polk & Tyler Cos.
BSCR - Big Sandy Creek Unit, BTNP, Polk Co.
BTNP - unknown locality in BTNP [county may also be unknown]
BUNA - Buna, Jasper Co.
BURR - Burrough’s Park, east of Tomball, Harris Co.
CALD - Caldwell, Burleson Co.
CAN - Canyonlands Unit, BTNP, Tyler Co.
CHLA - Chain-of-Lakes Resort, Liberty Co.
CRNT - Canyon Rim Nature Trail, Newton Co.
FORL - Forest Lake Experimental Forest, Tyler Co.
HCS - Hickory Creek Savannah Unit, BTNP, Tyler Co.
IEME - Inland Eastex Mill, Evadale, Jasper Co.
JASP - Jasper, Jasper Co. [excluding Martin Dies State Park]
JHK - John H. Kirby St. For., Tyler Co.
LANR - Lance Rosier Unit, BTNP, Hardin Co.
LEWC - Lewis Chapel, Co. Rd. 4045, Sand Ridge Cemetery Rd., Newton Co.
LNRC - Lower Neches River Corridor Unit, BTNP, Hardin, Jasper & Orange Cos.
LOBL - Loblolly Unit, BTNP, Liberty Co.
MARD - Martin Dies State Park, Jasper, Jasper Co.
MCC - Menard Creek Corridor Unit, BTNP, Hardin, Liberty & Polk Cos.
MILC - Mill Creek Cemetery, northern Newton Co.
NBBG - Neches Bottom and Jack Gore Bay Gall Unit, BTNP, Hardin Co.
PTAR - Port Arthur, Jefferson Co.
RELS - Roy E. Larsen Sandyland Sanctuary, ca. Kountze, Hardin Co.
SCRP - Scrapping Valley, Pineland, Newton Co.
SILS - Silsbee, Hardin Co., TX
TAMU - Texas A. & M. University, College Station, Brazos Co.
TC - Turkey Creek Unit, BTNP, Tyler & Hardin Cos.
THWA - Turkey Hill Wilderness Area, Angelina National Forest, San Augustine Co.
UNRC - Upper Neches River Corridor Unit, BTNP, Jasper & Tyler Cos.
VCC - Village Creek Corridor Unit, BTNP, Hardin Co.
VCSP - Village Creek State Park, ca. Lumberton, Hardin Co.
VID - Vidor, Orange Co.

COASTAL LOUISIANA GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION KEY

L - no locality, southern Louisiana
L-ACNC - Acadian Nature Ctr., Lafayette, Lafayette Parish
L-BRVD - Brady Rd. area, Vernon District, Kisatchie National Forest, Vernon Parish
L-EBRP - East Baton Rouge Parish L-FRBC - Friendship Baptist Church, ca. Pine Preserve, Evangelina Parish
L-HONI - Honey Island Swamp Nature Trail, St Tammany Parish
L-LKMA - Lk. Martin, St. Martin Parish
L-MOOR - Moore Pk., Lafayette, Lafayette Parish
L-NLLV - New Llano, Vernon Parish
L-PRW - Pearl River Wildlife Mgmt. Area, St. Tammany Parish
L-TPC - Talbert-Pierson Cemetery, Victor Martin Rd., Vernon Parish

COASTAL MISSISSIPPI GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION KEY

M - no localitiy, southern Mississippi
M-BCRT - Black Creek Tr., Perry Co.
M-BCRW - Black Creek Wilderness Area, Perry Co.
M-CHCR - Choctaw Creek woods, ca. Saucier, Harrison Co.
M-CLKD - ca. Clarksdale, ? Co.
M-CYCR - Cypress Crk. Landing, Black Creek Wilderness Area, Perry Co.
M-DNFH - DeSoto National Forest, Harrison Co.
M-HARC - no locality given, Harrison Co.
M-HARS - ca. Saucier, Harrison Experimental Forest, Harrison Co.
M-HARX - Harrison Experimental Forest, Harrison Co.
M-HENL - Henleyfield, Pearl River Co.
M-MCCO - McComb, Pike Co.
M-PARP - Parker Pond/Lake, Pascagoula River Wildlife Mgmt. Area, Jackson Co.
M-PRVC - Pacagoula River bottoms, Van Cleave, Jackson Co.
M-PRWM - Pascagoula River Wildlife Mgmt. Area, Jackson Co.
M-TUXT - Tuxachanie Trail, DeSoto National Forest, Harrison Co.
M-WAVA - between Wade & Van Cleave, Jackson Co.
M-WIGG - ca. Wiggins, Black Creek Wilderness Area, Perry Co.

HERBARIA OF DEPOSIT

CSU - Oklahoma Central State University, Edmond
DPL - personal herbarium of David P. Lewis
DTJ - personal herbarium of Dr. David T. Jenkins, University of Alabama, Birmingham
F - Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago
MICH - University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
RET - personal herbarium of R. E. Tulloss


TAXONOMIC PART

Links to listings for sections of the genus Amanita:
Amanita   Casesareae   Vaginatae   Lepidella   Amidella   Phalloideae   Validae


Subgenus Amanita (Spores inamyloid.)

Section Amanita (Stipe bearing a basal bulb. NOTE: Do not confuse with cupulate volval remains on nonbulbous stipe base.)
[ sectional links ]  [ top ]  [ meaning of biometric variables ]  [ bibliography ]  [ Amanita Studies home ]  [ checklists & keys page ]




  1. farinosa Schwein.  @!

    Colls.: DPL 8996; RET 7-16-87-F
    Locs.: CAN, M-WPRM
    Lit.: COK17, LMC81, WS85, JE86
    Spores: [160/8/8] (6.0-) 6.5 - 8.8 (-10.5) × (5.2-) 5.5 - 7.0 (-9.0) µm, (L = (6.8-) 7.1 - 8.0 µm; L’ = 7.4 µm; W = 5.8 - 6.4 (-6.5) µm; W’ = 6.1 µm; Q = (1.03-) 1.08 - 1.38 (-1.47); Q = 1.15 - 1.27 (-1.31); Q’ = 1.22).  [ image ]


  2. gemmata sensu auct. SE USA
    Colls.:
    Locs.:
    Lit.: TMS86, WS85, MM92
    Doubtful determination.


  3. Amanita levistriata

    levistriata Dav. T. Jenkins @!
    Colls.: DPL 4623, 4689, 4706, 4772, 5440 (F); RET 7-16-87-D, -I, 7-17-87-C, -D, -H, 7-18-87-E, -I, 6-10-00 -C
    Locs.: FORL, RELS, M-BCRT, M-PARP, M-PRWM, M-WAVA
    Lit.: JE88, LCI00
    Formerly called "sp. T14."  Spores: [80/4/4] (6.7-) 7.8 - 9.3 (-9.97) × (5.5-) 6.3 - 7.8 (-9.5) µm; Q = 1.0 - 1.31; Q = 1.11.  Known from as far north as the SE corner of Missouri.  [ image ]




  4. multisquamosa Peck
    Colls.:
    Locs.:
    Lit.: JE86
    =A. pantherina var. multisquamosa (Peck) Dav. T. Jenkins
    =A. cothurnata G. F. Atk.
    Spores: [89/5/5] (6.6-) 7.0 - 11.2 (-15.0) × (5.2-) 5.6 - 8.4 (-8.7) µm, (L = 7.8 - 9.8 µm; L’ = 8.8 µm; W = 6.3 - 7.1 µm; W’ = 6.7 µm; Q = (1.05-) 1.12 - 1.50 (-1.58); Q = 1.22 - 1.39; Q’ = 1.31).  [ image ]




  5. muscaria subsp. flavivolvata Singer
    Colls.:
    Locs.: ?M-HARS, ?M-HARX
    Lit.: WS85, JE85, TU05
    A number of collections sent to RET under this name in the past have proven to be A. persicina.  Therefore, the distribution of subsp. flavivolvata in the study region may not be as clearly understood as was thought in the recent past.  Spores: [957/48/37] (7.5-) 9.0 - 12.8 (- 19.0) × (5.5-) 6.5 - 8.5 (-11.5) µm, (L = (8.9-) 9.4 - 12.1 (-14.6) µm; L’ = 10.8 µm; W = (6.6-) 6.9 - 8.2 (-8.4) µm; W’ = 7.6 µm; Q = (1.11-) 1.26 - 1.67 (-2.23); Q = (1.29-) 1.31 - 1.65 (-1.95); Q’ = 1.42).  [ image ]




  6. parcivolvata (Peck) E.-J. Gilbert
    Colls: DPL 5682, 5699, 5827
    Locs.: BLKW
    Lit.: JE86
    Exannulate, yellow-powdered stipe.  Range extends into NE New Jersey, at least; much more common in the southeastern states of the U.S.  Spores: [87/5/4] (8.4-) 9.1 - 11.5 (-12.6) × (5.6-) 6.3 - 7.9 (- 8.0) µm, (L = 9.9 - 10.9 µm; L’ = 10.4 µm; W = 6.7 - 7.3 µm; W’ = 7.0 µm; Q = (1.26-) 1.31 - 1.64 (-1.67); Q = 1.38 - 1.55; Q’ = 1.48).  [ image ]




  7. persicina (Dav. T. Jenkins) Tulloss & Geml H
    Colls.: RET 12-2-89-A, -B, -C
    Locs.: M-HARC, M-HARS
    Lit.: LMC81, JE86, TMS86
    Apparently, the dominant muscarioid taxon of the southeastern USA.  In the northern limit of its known range, this species overlaps with the range of the yellow muscarioid taxon of northeastern North America presently known as A. muscaria var. guessowii.  Very large collections (thousands of basidiomes) known from Harrison, MS site. Spores: [327/16/11] (8.0-) 9.4 - 13.0 (-18.0) × (5.5-) 6.5 - 8.6 (-11.1) µm, (L = (9.8-) 10.0 - 12.1 (-13.0) µm; L’ = 11.0 µm; W = (6.8-) 6.9 - 8.0 (-8.1) µm; W’ = 7.4 µm; Q = (1.19-) 1.30 - 1.73 (-2.25); Q = (1.36-) 1.38 - 1.60 (-1.69); Q’ = 1.48).  [ image ]




  8. pubescens sensu Coker
    Colls.: DPL 8535
    Locs.: BUNA
    Lit.: COK17, JE77, LMC81
    Spores: [40/2/1] (9.3-) 9.5 - 11.5 (- 12.0) × (6.5-) 6.8 - 8.0 (-9.3) ) µm, (L = 10.0 - 10.7 µm; L' = 10.4 µm; W = 7.4 - 7.6 µm; W' = 7.5 µm; Q = (1.28-) 1.31 - 1.50 (-1.53); Q = 1.37 - 1.41; Q' = 1.39).  Dried material, photos, and information from Dr. Clark L. Ovrebo (CSU) indicate that this taxon is present in eastern Oklahoma.  Coker's collections were from North Carolina.  Jenkins [JE77] considered Schweinitz's name (A. pubescens) a nomen dubium.  Nevertheless, Coker supplies a very clear macroscopic description of the fungus to which he applied Schweinitz's name.  [ image ]




  9. roseitincta (Murrill) Murrill @!
    Colls.: DPL 2595, 3167, 3720, 5780, 8953, 9107; RET 10-26-85-B, 6-10-00-E
    Locs.: BCSA, BLKW, FORL, LANR, NBBG, SILS
    Lit.: WS85, TMS86
    =A. komarekensis Jenkins & Vinopal.
    Spores: [336/10/7] (7.6-) 8.5 - 11.8 (-14.4) × (5.1-) 6.0 - 8.2 (-10.0) µm, (L = 9.2 - 10.9 µm; L' = 9.8 µm; W = 6.3 - 7.6 µm; W' = 7.0 µm; Q = (1.09-) 1.20 - 1.69 (-2.08); Q = 1.33 - 1.50; Q' = 1.42).  Rather commonly collected in the SE US, but sometimes not recognized.  Known NE limit of range is in the coastal plain region of central New Jersey.  Underside of partial veil is often pink at first.  All pigments altering rapidly in sunlight. [ image ]




  10. sp-57 [cf.]
    Colls.: D. P. Lewis 4326(RET)
    Locs.: VID
    Lit.: -
    A yellow species with tuberculate striate cap; stipe with partial veil; universal veil as rusty submembranous patches and similarly colored material on underside of partial veil.  Spores: [20/1/1] (9.5-) 9.8 - 11.5 (-12.4) × (5.5-) 6.0 - 7.0 μm, (L = 10.7 μm; W = 6.5 μm; Q = (1.39-) 1.44 - 1.91 (-1.96); Q = 1.65).  [ image ]




  11. a name="spS1"> sp-S01 [cf.]
    Colls.: A. E. Bessette 11030(RET)
    Locs.: M-MCCO
    Lit.: -
    A pale yellow, tuberculate striate entity with ephemeral partial veil.  Spores: [100/5/5] (8.4-) 8.7 - 11.2 (-12.2) × (5.9-) 6.2 - 7.3 (-7.7) µm, (L = 9.3 - 10.7 µm; L’ = 9.9 µm; W = 6.5 - 6.8 µm; W’ = 6.7 µm; Q = (1.27-) 1.34 - 1.66 (-2.0); Q = 1.42 - 1.60; Q’ = 1.48).  Before the bulb is unearthed, this taxon gives the strong impression of being a member of sect. Vaginatae.  [ image ]


  12. sp-T22 @
    Colls.: RET 7-18-87-F, -G
    Locs.: M-BCRW, M-CYCR
    Lit.: -
    Pileus 13 - 24 mm wide, pale beige, planoconvex; context beige under pileipellis, else white, less than 3.5 mm thick over stipe; margin striate (about 30 - 55% of radius); universal veil very pale, faintly sordid beige, as easily removed warts.  Lamellae free, subcrowded, pale cream in mass, white in side view, unchanging, up to 2 mm broad; lamellulae truncate to subtruncate.  Stipe 28 - 41 × 1.5 - 2.5 mm, white to pale beige, tannish from handling, minutely fibrillose (10× lens), minutely longitudinally striatulate (10× lens); exannulate; bulb 3 - 6 × 4 - 7.5 mm, subglobose, subabrupt; context white; universal veil not evident.  Spores: [40/2/2] (7.5-) 8.0 - 10.0 (-10.8) × (5.2-) 5.8 - 7.0 (-7.2) µm, (L = 8.6 - 9.0 µm; L’ = 8.8 µm; W = 6.2 - 6.3 µm; W’ = 6.2 µm; Q = 1.26 - 1.50 (-1.54); Q = 1.38 - 1.44; Q' = 1.41).




  13. sp-T45
    Colls.: RLP 6-22-12-A
    Locs.: BSCR
    Lit.: -
    Pileus up to 31 mm wide, white with dull grayish orange-brown to buff disc, broadly convex to planoconvex with low umbo, fragile; context very thin; margin striate (about 35 - 45% of radius); universal veil absent.  Lamellae free, close, off-white to pale cream in mass, unchanging, breadth not recorded; lamellulae truncate to subtruncate, with about one for every three lamellae.  Stipe up to 60 × 4 mm, white to buff, narrowing upward very slightly, fragile; exannulate; bulb subnapiform to subfusiform; context mostly solid, concolorous with surface; universal veil as limbate volva encircling base of stem, very fragile, white, of irregular height.  Spores: [40/2/1] (7.5-) 7.8 - 9.9 (-10.4) × (5.2-) 5.5 - 6.5 (-7.0) µm, (L = 8.5 - 9.1 µm; L’ = 8.8 µm; W = 5.8 - 6.1 µm; W’ = 5.9 µm; Q = (1.36-) 1.38 - 1.62 (-1.65); Q = 1.47 - 1.49; Q' = 1.48). [ image ]



Section Caesareae (Stipe lacking a bulb at its base; having an annulus.)
[ sectional links ]  [ top ]  [ meaning of biometric variables ]  [ bibliography ]  [ Amanita Studies home ]  [ checklists & keys page ]




  1. arkansana H. R. Rosen @
    Colls.: DPL 5302, 6321, ?6333, 6358; RET 10-26-85-A, 7-16-87-C, -G
    Locs.: BLKW, FORL, TC, M-PRWM
    Lit.: TMS86
    = sp-T11.  Orange-brown disk with yellowish margin.  Often rather fragile at maturity.  Apparently limited to the SE U.S. states.  Spores: [290/13/7] (7.0-) 7.7 - 10.5 (-15.0) × (5.6-) 6.0 - 8.0 (-10.2) µm, (L = (8.0-) 8.3 - 9.9 µm; L’ = 9.0 µm; W = (6.3-) 6.5 -7.3 µm; W’ = 6.9 µm; Q = (1.10-) 1.19 - 1.43 (-1.70); Q = (1.22-) 1.24 - 1.38; Q’ = 1.30).  [ image ]




  2. jacksonii Pomerl.
    Colls.: DPL 6186 (mixed with sp. T31), ?6334, ?6357
    Locs.: ?BLKW, IEME
    Lit.: JE86, LMC81, WS85?, TMS86
    =A. umbonata Pomerl.
    =A. caesarea sensu auct. amer.
    Spores: [337/16/12] (7.0-) 7.8 - 10.1 (-13.0) × (5.2-) 6.0 - 7.5 (-8.7) µm, (L = (8.1-) 8.4 - 9.5 (-10.0) µm; L’ = 8.9 µm; W = (6.0-) 6.3 - 7.1 (-7.3) µm; W’ = 6.7 µm; Q = (1.11-) 1.20 - 1.53 (-1.63); Q = 1.25 - 1.42 (-1.47); Q’ = 1.33).  [ image ]




  3. murrilliana Singer
    Colls.: DPL 8082
    Locs.: LEWC
    Lit.: -
    Pileus 47 mm wide, dingy yellowish brown, plano-convex, moist, with slight umbo; margin stirate (to 30% of radius).  Lamellae free, close to subdistant, whitish, 4 mm broad; lamellulae in one tier.  Stipe 100 × 4 - 7 mm, whitish, staining/changing pinkish brown; context hollow; partial veil apical, white, membranous; universal veil white, sheathing.  Spores from Texas collection: [234/10/8] (8.5-) 9.5 - 12.6 (-13.6) × (5.6-) 6.5 - 8.4 (-9.2) µm, (L = (10.4-) 10.5 - 11.8 µm; L’ = 11.2 µm; W = 6.6 - 7.8 (-7.9) µm; W’ = 7.4 µm; Q = (1.23-) 1.32 - 1.74 (-1.88); Q = (1.43-) 1.46 - 1.58; Q’ = 1.51).  [ image ]




  4. spreta (Peck) Sacc. @
    Colls.: RET 7-14-87-H (typo?)
    Locs.: ?
    Lit.: TMS86
    Uncommon.  Cap ranges from cream to brownish gray to grayish brown, often virgate.  Partial veil often grayish as it ages.  Universal veil at stipe base usually a rather short saccate volva.  Spores: (7.7-) 9.4 - 13.1 (-15.5) × (5.2-) 5.9 - 7.8 (-9.0) µm, (L = 9.9 - 12.4 µm; L’ = 11.4 µm; W = 6.2 - 7.3 µm; W’ = 6.8 µm; Q = (1.40-) 1.49 - 1.89 (-2.11); Q = 1.60 - 1.81; Q’ = 1.67). [ image ]




  5. virginiana (Murrill) Murrill
    Colls.: DPL 4079
    Locs.: VID
    Lit.: -
    Uncommon.  Spores: [980/49/20] (9.1-) 11.5 - 15.0 (-20.5) × (6.5-) 8.5 - 11.2 (-15.5) µm, (L = (11.7-) 11.9 - 14.0 (-14.1) µm; L’ = 13.2 µm; W = (8.8-) 9.1 - 10.6 (-10.9) µm; W’ = 9.9 µm; Q = (1.07-) 1.16 - 1.52 (-1.89); Q = (1.16-) 1.21 - 1.42 (-1.55); Q’ = 1.33). [ image ]




  6. sp-MO01 @
    Colls.: DPL 4788
    Locs.: FORL
    Lit.: -
    Chocolate brown pileus with fragile, graying, submembranous partial veil and pointed stipe base and universal veil breaking up into warts.  Spores: [50/3/3] (9.9-) 10.5 - 14.1 (-16.5) × (6.6-) 7.0 - 9.1 (-10.5) μm, (L = 12.2 - 12.4 μm; L' = 12.3 μm; W = 7.8 - 8.0 μm; W' = 7.8 μm; Q = (1.38-) 1.39 - 1.75 (-1.88); Q = 1.55 - 1.58; Q' = 1.56). Ranges north to Missouri, at least.)


  7. sp-T24 @
    Colls.: Dr. D. T. Jenkins has a collection.
    Locs.: Mississippi
    Lit.: -
    Amanita spreta-like, brown pileus with fragile, graying, submembranous partial veil.)


  8. sp-T31
    Colls.: DPL 5908, 6010, 6060, 6189
    Locs. IEME
    Lit.:-
    affin. sp-W15.  Initially with brownish red or brownish red-orange pileus, margin quickly yellow, margin sometimes fading to yellow-white to whitish to white.  Stipe appears white in photographs (possibly with faint yellow scales) and has base attached to volva on sides of stipe, not only at bottom; universal veil with yellowish limbus internus.  Spores: [100/5/2] (7.3-) 7.6 - 10.6 (-14.1) × (5.0-) 5.3 - 6.8 (-8.5) µm, (L = 8.3 - 9.5 µm; L' = 9.0 µm; W = 5.6 - 6.5 µm; W' = 6.0 µm; Q = (1.30-) 1.33 - 1.67 (-1.92); Q = 1.46 - 1.54; Q' = 1.49).


  9. sp-T32 !
    Colls.: RET 6-9-00-A
    Locs.: MARD
    Lit.: -
    Pileus 42 mm wide, yellow to brownish yellow over disc, with white margin, not umbonate; margin striate (40%-45% of pileus radius in rather old specimen); universal veil as easily removed small white patch.  Lamellae crowded, cream in mass; lamellulae truncate to subtrucate, unevenly distributed, of diverse lengths, plentiful.  Stipe 98 × 8 mm, off-white, pinkish-brownish in age, subfloccose to subfibrillose, longitudinally striatulate; partial veil white, persistent; universal veil saccate, membranous, white on exterior surface, white above and yellow below on inner surface, attached only at stipe base.  Spores: [20/1/1] (9.5-) 10.3 - 13.2 (-13.7) × 6.0 - 8.0 μm, (L = 11.8 μm; W = 6.9 μm; Q = (1.44-) 1.47 - 2.01 (-2.20); Q = 1.71).  Because the sole specimen known to the authors was over mature, spore length and Q values may exceed the values given here.  See sp-T05, above, and sp-T36, below.



Section Vaginatae (Stipe lacking a bulb at its base and lacking an annulus.)
[ sectional links ]  [  top ]  [ meaning of biometric variables
[ bibliography ]  [ Amanita Studies home ]  [checklists & keys page ]

To use the following table, the reader may wish to re-familiarize her/himself with definitons of the biometric variables that can reached through the third item in the above set of links.  Because of the many unnamed taxa of sect. Vaginatae in the region of study, we offer here a rough method of finding species via a table of ranges of spore data averages for all listed taxa of section Vaginatae:

Q = 1.04 - 1.07 L = 11.2 - 11.3 µm W = 10.2 - 10.7 µm u.v. friable
pil. gray-brown
texasorora
Q = 1.04 L = 9.9 µm W = 9.6 µm pil. yellowish with
yellow-brown disk
sp-T05
Q = 1.05 - 1.08 L = 10.0 - 11.3 µm W = 9.4 - 10.5 µm u.v. friable
pil. gray-brown
rhacopus
Q = 1.05 - 1.11 L = 10.4 µm W = 9.3 - 9.9 µm pil. yellowish
olivaceous
sp-T06
Q = 1.07 L = 9.6 µm W = 9.0 µm pil. "grayish" sp-T39
Q = 1.07 - 1.12 L = 10.2 - 10.9 µm W = 9.4 - 9.8 µm pil. whitish or cream
with yellow-tan disc
sp-T36
Q = 1.08 L = 9.7 µm W = 9.0 µm pil. white or
whitish
sp-T38
Q = 1.08 L = 12.3 µm W = 11.3 µm u.v. friable
pil. dk. gray
w/ black disc
sp-T43
Q = 1.10 L = 9.4 µm W = 8.6 µm pil. medium yellow-brown sp-T37
Q = 1.10 - 1.14 L = 10.5 - 11.5 µm W = 9.5 - 10.1 µm pil. "gray" sp-V01
Q = 1.13 L = 9.3 - 9.4 µm W = 8.3 µm pil. gray with darker
gray disc
sp-T16
Q = 1.13 L = 11.8 µm W = 10.5 µm pil. med. brown sp-T44
Q = 1.14 L = 10.5 µm W = 9.2 µm pil. gray-brown sp-T33
Q = 1.15 L = 9.0 µm W = 7.8 µm pil. suggests A. fulva sp-T40
Q = 1.17 - 1.20 L = 10.6 - 11.3 µm W = 9.0 - 9.4 µm pil. pale gray to gray, buff to yellowish over umbo trygonion
Q = 1.28 - 1.35 L = 9.6 µm W = 7.1 - 7.5 µm pil. grayish, small sp-T42
Q = 1.29 L = 11.1 µm W = 8.6 µm pil. pale yellowish
beige
sp-T23
Q = 1.33 - 1.40 L = 10.6 - 11.4 µm W = 8.0 - 8.3 µm pil. dark gray,
nearly black
anthracina
Q = 1.55 L = 11.6 µm W = 7.5 µm pil. brown,
stipe annulate
insinuans




  1. anthracina @!
    Colls.: NAMA 2000 voucher 249(F); DPL 6923, 8148, 8997A, 9093?
    Locs.: BLKW, NBBG
    Lit.: -
    Pileus 29 - 36 mm wide, dark gray, nearly black, sometimes virgate, sometimes shiny over striations; context white, unstaining, about 2 mm thick above stipe; margin striate (40% - 55% of pileus radius); universal veil absent.  Lamellae free, close to crowded, whitish to off-white in side view, sometimes becoming grayish white with age, about 2 mm broad; lamellulae not plentiful, truncate, of diverse lengths, unevenly distributed.  Stipe 63 - 85 × 3 - 6 mm, white, becoming sordid from handling, pulverulent in top 20 (appox.) mm, elsewhere bearing very fine raised fibrils (10× lens); exannulate; universal veil white on exterior, saccate, membranous, barely attached at base of stipe, sometimes entirely separated.  Spores: [66/4/3] (8.5-) 9.5 - 12.5 (-13.5) × (7.0-) 7.3 - 9.0 (-11.0) µm, (L = 10.6 - 11.4 µm; L' = 11.0 µm; W = 8.0 - 8.3 µm; W' = 8.2 µm; Q = (1.12-) 1.20 - 1.49 (-1.64); Q = 1.33 - 1.40; Q' = 1.35).  This species has been found as far north as Ha Ha Tonka St. Pk., Missouri.  Upper photo by DPL; Photoshop® edit by RET.  Lower photo by RET (Missouri). 

  2. [ image ]  [ spore data table ]


  3. cf. fulva
    Colls.:
    Locs.:
    Lit.: JE86, TMS86
    Doubtful determination.  The name may be applied to more than one taxon in the region of study.  See sp-T40, below. 
    [ spore data table ]


  4. inaurata sensu Peck !
    Colls.: DPL ?5075; RET ?6-10-00-G
    Locs.: ?FORL, ?NBBG
    Lit.: LMC81, WS85, TMS86
    Also as ceciliae and "affin. inaurata"; probably ="A. rhacopus Y. Lamoureux nom. prov." or ="A. texasorora."  The name may be applied to more than one taxon in the region of study.  See spores (of northern specimens of A. rhacopus. See also texasorora, below.): [80/4/4] (7.7-) 9.4 - 12.0 (-14.2) × (7.0-) 8.8 - 11.2 (-13.5) µm, (L = 10.0 - 11.0 µm; L' = 10.5 µm; W = 9.3 - 10.5 µm; W' = 10.0 µm; Q = (1.0-) 1.02 - 1.11 (-1.12); Q = 1.04 - 1.07; Q' = .06).  The range of this group of species apparently extends into southeastern Canada.  [ spore data table ]



  5. insinuans Tulloss & Kudzma nom. prov.
    Colls.: RET 685-8
    Locs.: L-EBRP
    Lit.: -
    This is the first species of section Vaginatae bearing a partial veil that is known from the Americas.  Spores: [40/1/1] (9.0-) 9.8 - 13.0 (-15.0) × (6.3-) 6.4 - 8.4 (-9.6) μm, (L = 11.6 μm; L' = 11.6 μm; W = 7.5 μm; W' = 7.5 μm; Q = (1.23-) 1.41 - 1.71 (-1.77); Q = 1.55; Q' = 1.55).  [ image ]  [ spore data table ]


  6. vaginata sensu auct. SE USA
    Colls.: DPL ?5190, ?5245, ?5253, ?5928, ?6923, ?6924, ?7093, ?8160
    Locs.: ?BLKW, ?CALD, ?FORL, ?TC, ?THWA, ?VID
    Lit.: WS85, JE86, TMS86
    Includes "livida" and "affin. vaginata."  [ spore data table ]


  7. sp-T02 +!
    Colls.: RET 6-10-00-A [NAMA 2000 voucher #043 (F)], -M
    Locs.: NBBG
    Lit.: -
    Pileus 98 mm wide, rich brown, especially dark over disc, progressively somewhat paler toward margin, campanulate at first, with marked umbo; context 7 mm thick over stipe, off white except gray in umbo, brownish gray in insect damage; margin striate (% of pileus radius).  Lamellae free, brownish white in mass, white in side view, 6.5 mm broad, marginate (pale brown); lamellulae truncate or truncate with tooth at context, unevenly distributed, of diverse lengths, plentiful.  Stipe 172 × 11 mm, pale brownish gray, with surface breaking up into gray fibrils on pallid ground here and there, longitudinally striatulate; exannulate; universal veil saccate, about 41 mm tall, membranous, white inside and out.  Spores: ?.  [ spore data table ]




  8. sp-T05 +
    Colls.: RET 10-25-86-H
    Locs.: BTNP
    Lit.: -
    Pileus small, yellowish with yellow-brown disk, subconic at first, flaring upward in age; margin striate.  Lamellae ?.  Stipe ?, slender; exannulate; universal veil saccate, membranous, sheathing.  Spores: [20/1/1] (8.4-) 8.7 - 11.9 (-12.6) × 8.4 - 10.8 (-12.6) µm, ( L = 9.9 µm; W = 9.6 µm; Q = 1.0 - 1.10; Q = 1.04).  See sp-T36, below.  [ image ]  [ spore data table ]




  9. sp-T06 !
    Colls.: DPL 217(DTJ), 1773, 1798, 1944, 3143, 3502; RET 6-9-00-B [NAMA 2000 voucher #173 (F)]
    Locs.: MARD
    Lit.: -
    Pileus 55 - 68 mm wide, palely zonate, sordid to olivaceous bands of yellow and honey-tan or having olive (or olivaceous yellow or olivaceous tan) disc and paler yellowish margin, becoming more sordid overnight in wax paper, plano convex, umbonate; margin striate (30 - 50% of pileus radius); context off-white to white, 2.5 - 6.5 mm thick above stipe; universal veil absent.  Lamellae free, crowded, very pale yellowish white to sordid yellowish cream in mass, cream to very pale cream in side view, 3.5 - 5 mm broad; lamellulae truncate to excavate truncate, unevenly distributed, of diverse lengths (sometimes with few less than half the pileus radius in length), plentiful.  Stipe 120 - 152 × 6.5 - 8 mm, off-white to somewhat concolorous with pileus to pale buff, with surface fibrils (sometimes creating a "snake skin," "flame," or "zebroid" pattern) darkening from handling; exannulate; universal veil saccate, sheathing, whitish to yellow white, 25 - 42 × 13 - 13.5 mm, white, with small limbus internus near point of sac's attachment to stipe, becoming completely detached from stipe (then may be difficult to collect) .  This species is distinguished from A. sinicoflava Tulloss by its often zonate pileus, its non- graying volva, and (consequently) different volval tissue. DPL has called it "#217."  Spores: [60/3/3] (7.6-) 9.68 - 11.3 (-12.3) × (7.0-) 8.6 - 10.5 (-11.0) µm, (L = 10.4 µm; L' = 10.4 µm; W = 9.3 - 9.9 µm; W' = 9.6 µm; Q = (1.0-) 1.03 - 1.15 (-1.23); Q = 1.05 - 1.11; Q' = 1.09).  This species has been found as far north as Ha Ha Tonka St. Pk., Missouri.  [ image ]  [ spore data table ]


  10. sp-T16 @!
    Colls.: DPL 9092; RET 7-17-87-A, ?6-9-00-C
    Locs.: LANR, L-PRW, L-HONI
    Lit.: -
    Pileus 24 - 35 mm wide, gray with darker gray in center; context pale sordid white, 2 - 3 mm thick over stipe; margin with striations (ca. 55-80% of radius); universal veil absent or as single patch.  Lamellae free, whitish or slightly sordid, about 3.5 mm broad; lamellulae truncate, irregularly distributed.  Stipe 40 × 2 - 2.5 mm, white, minutely longitudinally striatulate; exannulate; universal veil white on exterior, saccate, membranous, about 8 mm high, connected just at stipe base.  Spores: [40/2/2] (7.9-) 8.1 - 10.5 (-12.0) × (6.0-) 7.0 - 9.3 (-11.0) µm, (L = 9.3 - 9.4 µm; L' = 9.4 µm; W = 8.3 µm; W' = 8.3 µm; Q = (1.0-) 1.01 - 1.25 (-1.40); Q = 1.13 - 1.14; Q' = 1.13).  [ spore data table ]


  11. sp-T23 @
    Colls.: RET 7-18-87-H
    Locs.: M-DNFH, M-TUXT
    Lit.: -
    Pileus 52 mm wide, pale yellowish beige pileus, with very slight umbo; context white (except for pale tan just below pileipellis), 4 mm thick.  Lamellae free to narrowly adnate, close to subcrowded, pale orangish cream in mass, off-white in side view, 4 mm broad; lamellulae truncate.  Stipe 111 × 8.5 mm, off-white below flocculence, having dense flocculence concolorous with pileus; exannulate; universal veil remaining as submembranous patches on lower stipe, white.  Spores: [20/1/1] (9.4-) 10.1 - 11.9 (-15.7) × 7.7 - 9.1 (-11.2) µm, (L = 11.1 µm; W = 8.6 µm; Q = (1.14-) 1.20 - 1.45; Q = 1.29).  [ spore data table ]


  12. sp-T30
    Colls.: J. Justice 24.xi.1991 s.n., 17.x.1993 s.n.
    Locs.:
    Lit.: -
    Pileus deep red-brown (7E5-6 over disk, 6E5-6 toward margin); universal veil with pinkish orange tints, leaving patches on pileus (becoming grayish) and on lower stipe, sometimes with very reduced cupulate volva; stipe with pinkish orange fibrils that darken with maturity to dirt brown.  Spores: ?.  Could this be A. dulciarii Tulloss nom. prov.?  [ spore data table ]


  13. sp-T33 !
    Colls.: RET 6-10-00-A [NAMA 2000 voucher #177 (F)]
    Locs.: RELS
    Lit.: -
    Pileus 53 mm wide, pale grayish brown with notably darker gray-brown to brown disc and slightly darker gray brown over area of striatons, umbonate, context off-white except gray under pileipellis in umbo and paler gray elsewhere under pileipellis, 4 mm thick over stipe; margin striate (45% of pileus radius); universal veil absent.  Lamellae free, crowded, off-white in mass, white to pale grayish white in side view, 3.5 mm broad; lamellulae truncate, unevenly distributed, of diverse lengths, plentiful.  Stipe 151 × 7 mm, off-white, smooth in upper 3/4, below this with pale grayish fibrils forming upward pointing squamules; exannulate; universal veil saccate, membranous, white on both surfaces, 42 × 12 mm, with limbus internus thin, with very uneven free edge, unusually long, attached to main volval limb at point of that element's attachment to stipe.  Spores: [20/1/1] (9.8-) 10.0 - 11.5 (-12.5) × (8.1-) 8.5 - 10.0 (-10.5) μm, (L = 10.5 μm; W = 9.2 μm; Q = (1.06-) 1.09 - 1.19 (-1.21); Q = 1.14).  [ spore data table ]


  14. sp-T35 !
    Colls.: RET 6-10-00-L [NAMA 2000 voucher #297 (F)]
    Locs.: ?
    Lit.: -
    ??  [ spore data table ]




  15. sp-T36
    Colls.: DPL 7375, 8959
    Locs.: BLKW, LANR
    Lit.: -
    Pileus 58 - 74 mm wide, whitish to cream to yellowish cream, with light brown or sordid yellow or yellowish avellaneous disc, moist, umbonate; context white, 4 - 7 mm thick over stipe; margin flaring with age, striate (with striations (30%-) 40 - 50% of pileus radius); universal veil infrequently as white patch over disc.  Lamellae free, close,4.5 - 6 mm broad, with fimbriate margin.  Stipe 91 - 143 × 7 - 10 mm, dull whitish; exannulate; universal veil saccate (e.g., 35 × 13.5 mm), ample, white (in one specimen, with some golden yellow patches, especially toward base), with limb 0.5 - 2 mm thick, with limbus internus not observed.  Odorless.  Spores: [101/4/4] (8.5-) 9.3 - 11.6 (-14.5) × (8.0-) 8.6 - 11.0 (-12.6) µm, L = 10.2 - 10.9 µm; L' = 10.5 µm; W = 9.4 - 9.8 µm; W' = 9.6 µm; Q = (1.03-) 1.04 - 1.15 (-1.45); Q = 1.08 - 1.12; Q' = 1.09). Solitary; with Pinus or in Quercus-Carya forest.  This species has been found as far north as Ha Ha Tonka St. Pk., Missouri.  See sp-T05, above.   Photographs by RET (Missouri).  [ image ]  [ spore data table ]


  16. sp-T37
    Colls.: DPL 8074
    Locs.: MILC
    Lit.: -
    Pileus "medium yellow-brown."  Spores: [20/1/1] 8.5 - 10.5 (-10.6) × (7.5-) 8.0 - 10.0 (-10.1) µm, (L = 9.4 µm; W = 8.6 µm; Q = (1.03-) 1.05 - 1.15 (-1.25); Q' = 1.10).  [ spore data table ]


  17. sp-T38
    Colls.: DPL 8908
    Locs.: BLKW
    Lit.: -
    Pileus "white."  Spores: [20/1/1] (8.0-) 8.8 - 10.5 (-13.5) × (6.8-) 8.0 - 9.6 (-12.7) µm, (L = 9.7 µm; W = 9.0 µm; Q= (1.03-) 1.04 - 1.18 (-1.19); Q = 1.08).  [ spore data table ]


  18. sp-T39
    Colls.: DPL 7045, 9075
    Locs.: CRNT, TC
    Lit: -
    Pileus grayish, ca. 75 mm wide; stipe with dark fibrils (see sp. 46?).  Spores: [20/1/1] (8.0-) 8.5 - 10.6 (-11.0) × (7.6-) 7.9 - 10.0 (-10.2) µm, (L = 9.6 µm; W = 9.0 µm; Q = (1.01-) 1.03 - 1.12 (-1.14); Q = 1.07).  [ spore data table ]


  19. sp-T40
    Colls.: DPL 8957
    Locs.: LANR
    Lit: -
    Pileus suggesting "A. fulva."  Spores: [25/1/1] 8.5 - 9.5 (-10.1) × (6.6-) 7.0 - 8.6 (-8.9) µm, (L = 9.0 µm; W = 7.8 µm; Q = 1.08 - 1.28 (-1.36); Q = 1.15).  [ spore data table ]


  20. sp-T42
    Colls.: DPL 7368, 9093
    Locs.: BLKW, LANR
    Lit: -
    Pileus 30 mm wide, "grayish," viscid when wet; margin striate (up to 35% of radius).  Lamellae no notes.  Stipe 80 × 3 - 5 mm, white, decorated with small grayish white fibrils; universal veil saccate, white, sheathing.  Spores: [44/2/2] (8.3-) 8.5 - 10.6 (-11.0) × (6.4-) 6.6 - 8.4 (-8.7) µm, (L = 9.6 µm; L' = 9.6 µm; W = 7.1 - 7.5 µm; W' = 7.3 µm; Q = (1.19-) 1.20 - 1.48 (-1.50); Q = 1.28 - 1.35; Q' = 1.32).  [ spore data table ]


  21. sp-T43
    Colls.: RET 11-25-09-A
    Locs.: L-LKMA
    Lit: -
    Pileus dark gray, with black disc; margin striate; universal veil absent.  Lamellae becoming sordid with age.  Stipe thoroughly gray (dark cinereous); universal veil reportedly friable.  Spores: [20/1/1] (9.2-) 9.4 - 16.1 (-16.8) × (8.6-) 8.9 - 14.7 (-14.9) µm, (L = 12.0 µm; W = 10.6 µm; Q = 1.06 - 1.13 (-1.16); Q = 1.08).  Evaluation of spore volumes indicates that 2-spored, or even 1-spored basidia were present; hence, values above are probably high for an average mature specimen.  Removing four largest spores from the data would yield [16/1/1] (9.2-) 9.4 - 12.6 × (8.6-) 8.9 - 11.2 (-11.9) µm, (L = 11.3 µm; W = 10.3 µm; Q = 1.06 - 1.13 (-1.16); Q = 1.09).  [ spore data table ]


  22. sp-T44
    Colls.: RET 11-26-09-A
    Locs.: L-MOOR
    Lit: -
    Pileus medium brown; margin striate.  Lamellae no notes.  Stipe white; universal veil saccate, white, sheathing.  Spores: [20/1/1] (10.0-) 10.5 - 14.0 × 9.0 - 12.6 µm, (L = 11.8 µm; W = 10.5 µm; Q = (1.03-) 1.05 - 1.21 (-1.29); Q = 1.13).  Evaluation of spore volumes indicates that 2-spore basidia were present; hence, values above are probably high for an average mature specimen.  Removing three largest spores from the data would yield [17/1/1] (10.0-) 10.5 - 12.9 (-13.3) × 9.0 - 11.5 (-11.6) µm, (L = 11.4 µm; W = 10.2 µm; Q = (1.03-) 1.05 - 1.21 (-1.29); Q = 1.12).  [ spore data table ]




  23. sp-T47
    Colls.: Pastorino 6-11-14K
    Locs.: TC
    Lit: -
    Pileus yellow-orange over disc becoming pallid toward margin; margin striate.  Lamellae no notes.  Stipe white; universal veil saccate, white, sheathing.  Spores: ??.  [ image ]  [ spore data table ]


  24. cf. sp-V01
    Colls.: DPL 9043
    Locs.: BSCR
    Lit.: -
    Pileus gray.  Spores: [100/5/2] (8.4-) 9.5 - 12.6 (-17.5) × (7.0-) 8.4 - 11.2 (-12.9) µm, (L = 10.5 - 11.5 µm; L' = 11.0 µm; W = 9.5 - 10.1 µm; W' = 9.8 µm; Q = (1.0-) 1.04 - 1.26 (-1.79); Q = 1.10 - 1.14; Q' = 1.13). Occurs as far north as Virginia.  [ spore data table ]




  25. texasorora +
    Colls.: DPL 8768, RET 10-25-86-B
    Locs.: LANR
    Lit.: -
    Similar to inaurata sensu Pk. or ceciliae sensu Dav. T. Jenkins;  grayish-brown, sometimes with pallid margin.  Similar to A. rhacopous.  Spores: [40/2/2] (9.1-) 9.8 - 12.2 (-14.0) × 9.1 - 11.9 (-12.9) µm, (L = 11.0 - 11.3 µm; L' = 11.2 µm; W = 10.7 µm; W' = 10.7 µm; Q = 1.0 - 1.10 (-1.11); Q = 1.03 - 1.06; Q' = 1.04).  Photo by RET.  [ image ]  [ spore data table ]




  26. trygonion
    Colls.: Pastorino 6-14-14B
    Locs.: LANR
    Lit.: -
    Pileus Up to 47± mm wide, sordid cream becoming somewhat grayer with age, with buff disc becoming somewhat yellower with age, campanulate at first, then broadly campanulate, with distinct umbo; context white; margin striate (0.2 - 0.25R); universal veil absent.  Lamellae crowded, cream in mass; lamellulae truncate to rounded trucate, infrequent to rare.  Stipe 106 - 120 × 6 - 7.5 mm, white to off-white; exannulate; universal veil as saccate volva, roughly cylindric or slightly flaring, white, membranous, persistent, up to 29 × 15.5 mm, adhering to stipe base.  Spores: [40/2/1] (7.9-) 9.5 - 12.5 (-13.0) × (7.1-) 8.2 - 10.3 (-11.5) μm, (L = 10.6 - 11.3 μm; L' = 10.9 μm; W = 9.0 - 9.4 μm; W' = 9.2 μm; Q = (1.05-) 1.10 - 1.33 (-1.40); Q = 1.17 - 1.20; Q' = 1.19).  [ image ]  [ spore data table ]



Subgenus Lepidella (Spores amyloid.)

Section Amidella  (Margin appendiculate—at least at first.  Volva as a multilayered, thick-limbed, sac on a bulbless stipe base.  Many taxa in this section have the unusual combination of amyloid spores with a striate cap margin and truncate lamellae.  Species in this section often require microscopic examination for certain identification.  A frequent exception is A. whetstoneae.  [Depending on the species involved, RET has personal correct field ID rate of around 75%—inadequate.]  Many species in this section will stain pinkish (sometimes very briefly) if collected in moist weather or otherwise in very fresh condition.  Toxicity of North American taxa of sect. Amidella is unknown.)
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  1. peckiana Kauffman in Peck @!
    Colls.: DPL 4013, 4270, ?4312, ?4993, ?5015, ?5188, ?5237, ?5751, ?7415, ?7887, ?8936; C. L. Ovrebo 4670 (CSU); RET 7-18-87-B
    Locs.: ?BLKW, ?FORL, ?LANR, LEWC, RELS, SILS, ?TC, ?L-BRVD, M- TUXT
    Lit.: -
    ?=A. cylindrisporiformis (Murrilll) Murrill
    ?=A. margarita (Murrill) Murrill.
    Formerly called both "species F8" (Florida checklist) and "species T21."  So far as is known, A. peckiana is the only species of sect. Amidella which has a membranous partial veil in the earliest stages of button expansion.  Spores: [40/2/2] (10.8-) 12.2 - 17.2 (-19.2) × 4.8 - 5.9 (-6.3) µm; L = 12.9 - 14.7 µm; W = 5.1 - 5.7 µm; Q = (1.83-) 2.05 - 3.44 (-3.69); Q = 2.26 - 2.90).  The range of this species extends northward to Michigan and eastward to the Atlantic Coastal Plain.




  2. pseudovolvata Tulloss nom. prov. @!
    Colls.: S. E. Harsch 300 (RET), 301 (RET), 302 (RET), 303 (RET), 306 (RET); DPL 4018, 4124, 8958, 9029; RET 7-14-87-F, -I, -L, -M, 7-15-87-B, 7-16-87-F, -I, 7-17-87-G, 7-18-87-A, 7-19-87-A
    Locs.: SILS, L, L-HONI, L-PRW, M, M-PARP, M-TUXT, M-WAVA
    Lit.: WS85
    ="species 41" (New Jersey Pine Barrens list).  Often labeled as "A. volvata" or "A. peckiana" in literature.  Common to extremely common.  Very similar to, but usually significantly smaller than, A. volvata and dolichopus with narrower spores of intermediate Q; marginal striations very distinct upon emergence of the pileus from the volval sac; spores: [1317/65/54] (5.0-) 8.0 - 11.0 (-13.5) × (3.8-) 4.5 - 6.0 (-7.8) µm, (L = (7.6-) 8.5 - 10.6 (-11.0) µm; L’ = 9.6 µm; W = (4.5-) 4.8 - 5.9 (-6.5) µm; W’ = 5.2 µm; Q = (1.11-) 1.52 - 2.16 (-2.76); Q = (1.42-) 1.64 - 2.04 (-2.14); Q’ = 1.85).  [ image ]




  3. sagittaria Tulloss nom. prov. +
    Colls.: RET 10-25-86-E
    Locs.:
    Lit.: -
    ="speces F3" (Florida checklist)  Exannulate, flocculent stipe; copious sheathing universal veil; whole basidiome tends to show brick-red staining. Range includes Florida, Georgia, and the New Jersey Pine Barrens.  Spores: [225/9/9] (9.1-) 11.0 - 15.9 (-19.0) × (3.1-) 3.5 - 4.9 (-5.5) µm, (L = 2.70 - 3.61 μm; L' = 12.9 µm; W = 3.9 - 4.7 μm: W' = 4.2 µm; Q = (1.96-) 2.56 - 3.75 (-4.68); Q = 2.70 - 3.61; Q' = 3.06).




  4. volvata (Peck) Lloyd @
    Colls.: S. Harsch 304 (RET), 305 (RET); H. D. Thiers 1874 (MICH); RET 7-16-87-E
    Locs.: L-HONI
    Lit.: -
    ="species T18."  Uncommon, but locally plentiful.  Larger and more robust than both its var. elongata and Like "A. pseudovolvata" and with a much denser layer of flocculence at the top of the stipe.  Colors from oxidation considerably more intense than in "A. peckiana."  Spores: [1223/61/45] (5.8-) 8.4 - 12.3 (-14.2) × (4.5-) 5.2 - 7.2 (-9.0) µm, (L = (8.6-) 9.0 - 11.8 (-12.4) µm; L’ = 10.3 µm; W = (5.1-) 5.5 - 6.8 (-7.6) µm; W’ = 6.2 µm; Q = (1.16-) 1.35 - 1.94 (-2.45); Q = (1.39-) 1.48 - 1.93 (-2.02); Q’ = 1.65).  [ image ]


  • Section Lepidella  (Cap margin appendiculate—at least when young.  Stipe often, but not always, bearing a bulb.  Volva rarely limbate, never as a thick-limbed, multilayered sac on a bulbless stipe base.  A number of species in this section have been found to contain a non-protein amino acid that is a severe threat to the human kidney and liver.)  [Note: Also, see sp-06 under section Validae.]  [ sectional links ]  [ top ]  [ meaning of biometric variables ]  [ bibliography ]  [ Amanitaceae Studies home ]  [ checklists & keys page ]





    1. abrupta Peck @
      Colls.: DPL 3301
      Locs.: TC
      Lit.: BAS69, JE86, LMC81, WS85, MS86
      Spores: [97/4/4] (6.1-) 7.2 - 9.0 (-10.7) × (4.8-) 5.9 - 7.5 (-9.2) µm, (L = 7.9 - 8.5 µm; L’ = 8.1 µm; W = 6.1 - 6.8 µm; W’ = 6.6 µm; Q = (1.07-) 1.10 - 1.40 (-1.61); Q = 1.17 - 1.32; Q’ = 1.23).  [ image ]


    2. alliacea (Murrill) Murrill
      Colls.: DPL ?5927 Locs.: ?THWA
      Lit.: BAS69
      Spores from type study of Bas (1969): [20/1/1] (12.0-) 13.0 - 14.5 × 4.0 - 4.5 μm, (Q = (1.70-) 3.0 - 3.50; Q = 3.20).




    3. atkinsoniana Coker
      Colls.: Justice TX-AM-2
      Locs.: BLKW
      Lit.: BAS69, LMC81, TMS86
      Includes "affin. atkinsoniana."  Uncommon.  Spores: [230/10/10] (6.8-) 8.0 - 10.5 (-14.3) × (5.0-) 5.4 - 7.2 (-8.5) µm, (L = (8.2-) 9.0 - 9.7 µm; L’ = 9.2 µm; W = 5.7 - 6.6 (-6.9) µm; W’ = 6.2 µm; Q = (1.17-) 1.27 - 1.71 (-1.95); Q = 1.36 - 1.57 (-1.67); Q’ = 1.50).  [ image ]




    4. chlorinosma (Peck in Austin) Lloyd
      Colls.:
      Locs.:
      Lit.: BAS69, TMS86
      Spores: [85/4/4] (7.5-) 8.0 - 11.0 (-12.2) × (4.5-) 4.7 - 6.5 (-7.5) µm, (L = 8.5 - 10.2 µm; L’ = 9.2 µm; W = 5.1 - 6.1 µm; W’ = 5.5 µm; Q = (1.37-) 1.45 - 2.02 (-2.35); Q = 1.52 - 1.81; Q’ = 1.69).  [ image ]




    5. cinereoconia G. F. Atk. +@!
      Colls.: DPL 9062; RLP 9-23-09G, RET 10-25-86-D, 7-17-87-F?
      Locs.: BTNP (Polk Co.), NBBG
      Lit.: BAS69, TMS86
      Spores: [60/3/3] (7.3-) 7.7 - 10.1 (-11.2) × (3.8-) 4.2 - 5.2 (-6.4) µm, (L = 8.8 - 9.5 µm; L’ = 9.1 µm; W = 4.2 - 4.9 µm; W’ = 4.7 µm; Q = (1.54-) 1.66 - 2.18 (-2.49); Q = 1.80 - 1.97; Q’ = 1.90).  [ image ]




    6. cokeri (E.-J. Gilbert & Kühner) E.-J. Gilbert
      Colls.:
      Locs.:
      Lit.: BAS69, WS85
      Spores: [95/5/4] (9.2-) 10.8 - 13.2 (-15.0) × (5.5-) 6.5 - 8.7 (-9.5) µm, (L = 11.4 - 12.7 µm; L’ = 11.9 µm; W = (6.9-) 7.8 - 8.1 µm; W’ = 7.8 µm; Q = (1.27-) 1.35 - 1.79 (-2.0); Q = 1.44 - 1.56 (-1.74); Q’ = 1.53).  [ image ]




    7. cylindrispora Beardslee !
      Colls.:
      Locs.:
      Lit.:
      =species 7.  This species is known at least as far north as the New Jersey Pine Barrens.  Spores: [530/24/19] (7.8-) 11.5 - 15.8 (-24.5) × (3.2-) 3.8 - 5.0 (-6.2) µm, (L = (11.7-) 11.9 - 14.4 (-15.3) µm; L’ = 13.3 µm; W = 4.0 - 4.8 (-4.9) µm; W’ = 4.3 µm; Q = (1.94-) 2.40 - 3.81 (-5.10); Q = (2.44-) 2.55 - 3.55 (-3.60); Q’ = 3.11).  [ image ]




    8. daucipes (Mont.) Lloyd !
      Colls.: DPL 2239, 2331, 2323, 2814
      Locs.: BTNP, TC, VID
      Lit.: BAS69. TMS86
      Universal veil turns pink to salmon.  Often, a felted or subfelted piece of the universal veil's limbus internus is present at the base of the stipe, above the bulb.  Spores: [160/8/8] (7.7-) 8.0 - 11.2 (-13.8) × 5.0 - 7.0 (-9.9) µm, (L = (8.3-) 8.7 - 10.8 µm; L’ = 9.7 µm; W = 5.6 - 6.5 µm; W’ = 6.0 µm; Q = (1.22-) 1.38 - 1.82 (-2.0); Q = (1.46-) 1.55 - 1.68; Q’ = 1.61). [ image ]




    9. hesleri Bas
      Colls.: DPL 5631, 5667 (F), 5689, 5705; 18.vii.1993 DPL & S. Harsch s.n.
      Locs.: BLKW, M-CYCR, M-WIGG
      Lit.: BAS69, WS85, LCI00
      Universal veil remnants on the pileus can become very dark with age and exposure.  Spores: [260/12/7] (8.5-) 9.5 - 12.5 (-16.1) × (4.8-) 5.1 - 6.5 (-7.8) µm, (L =( 10.0-) 10.4 - 11.1 µm; L’ = 10.7 µm; W = (5.4-) 5.5 - 6.1 µm; W’ = 5.9 µm; Q = (1.50-) 1.60 - 2.18 (-2.70); Q = 1.74 - 1.95 (-2.08); Q’ = 1.84).  [ image ]


    10. cf. inodora ! Colls.: RET 6-10-00-D
      Locs.: RELS
      Lit.: BAS69
      Possibly "A. roanokensis sensu Murrill)."  (Spores: ?)




    11. longipes Bas ex Tulloss & Dav. T. Jenkins !
      Colls.:
      Locs.:
      Lit.: BAS69, TUJ85
      Spores: [820/41/41] (7.2-) 9.8 - 14.0 (-21) × (3.9-) 4.6 - 6.3 (-9.8) µm, (L = (10.3-) 10.4 - 12.7 (-13.6) µm; L’ = 11.8 µm; W = (4.5-) 4.8 - 5.9 (-6.3) µm; W’ = 5.4 µm; Q = (1.50-) 1.75 - 2.63 (-3.50); Q = (1.85-) 1.94 - 2.48 (-2.51); Q’ = 2.20).  [See also specimen cataloged in RET as "species S2" from BTNP.]  [ image ]




    12. microlepis Bas
      Colls.:
      Locs.:
      Lit.: BAS69, LMC81
      Diagnosis in LMC81 questionable, illus. seems to be abrupta; however, Hillhouse 184 (MICH) is definitely this species.]  Gills are cafe-au-lait.  Spores: [55/3/3] (8.2-) 8.4 - 10.8 × (5.6-) 5.9 - 7.3 (-8.0) µm, (L = 9.3 - 9.9 µm; L’ = 9.5 µm; W = 6.2 - 7.0 µm; W’ = 6.6 µm; Q = (1.22-) 1.27 - 1.60 (-1.86); Q = 1.36 - 1.51; Q’ = 1.45).  [ image ]




    13. mutabilis Beardslee @
      Colls.: DPL 4440, 7514; ?RET 7-15-87-A
      Locs.: CHLA, LEWC
      Lit.: BAS69, TU84, WS85
      Odor of anise, raspberry-sherbet staining reaction when cut or broken.  Spores: [195/9/8] (8.7-) 10.0 - 14.6 (-18.9) × (5.0-) 6.0 - 8.0 (-12.6) µm, (L = 11.0 - 12.6 (-13.8) µm; L’ = 12.0 µm; W = 6.6 - 7.6 (-8.3) µm; W’ = 7.1 µm; Q = (1.30-) 1.50 - 1.90 (-2.10); Q = (1.60-) 1.65 - 1.78; Q’ = 1.70).  The rightmost image is by David P. Lewis.  [ image ]




    14. nauseosa (Wakef.) D. A. Reid
      Colls.: DPL 6117; RET 10-26-85-D
      Locs.: BMNT
      Lit.: BAS69, WS85
      =A. praegraveolens (Murrill) Murrill
      =A. malodora (Murrill) Murrill.
      Spores: [560/27/17] (6.0-) 7.0 - 10.0 (-13.5) × (4.9-) 6.1 - 8.3 (-11.1) µm, (L = 7.4 - 9.4 (-9.6) µm; L’ = 8.4 µm; W = (6.3-) 6.5 - 7.7 (-7.9) µm; W’ = 7.1 µm; Q = (1.0-) 1.05 - 1.38 (-1.86); Q = (1.08-) 1.09 - 1.33 (-1.34); Q’ = 1.19).  [ image ]




    15. onusta (Howe) Sacc. @!
      Colls.:
      Locs.:
      Lit.: BAS69, WS85, TMS86
      Spores: [215/12/12] (7.0-) 8.0 - 11.0 (-13.0) × (5.0-) 5.5 - 7.0 (-8.3) µm, (L = 8.3 - 10.5 (-11.0) µm; L’ = 9.4 µm; W = 5.7 - 6.5 (-7.1) µm; W’ = 6.1 µm; Q = (1.14-) 1.28 - 1.85 (-2.21); Q = 1.35 - 1.65 (-1.84); Q’ = 1.52).  [ image ]




    16. pelioma Bas @!
      Colls.: D. T. Jenkins 2791; DPL 2057, 3062, 3120; RET 6-10-00-F, -H
      Locs.: LEWC, NBBG, TC, M-BCRW
      Lit.: BAS69, JE86, TMS86
      So far as is known, A. pelioma is the only Amanita in the region with blue-green stains in remains of the universal veil.  Spores: [125/5/3] (8.8-) 9.8 - 13.6 (-15.0) × (5.5-) 6.0 - 9.1 (-10.1) µm, (L = 10.6 - 12.1 µm; L’ = 11.5 µm; W = 6.5 - 8.1 µm; W’ = 7.2 µm; Q = (1.21-) 1.38 - 1.85 (-2.22); Q = 1.49 - 1.76; Q’ = 1.61).  [ image ]




    17. polypyramis (Berk. & M. A. Curtis) Sacc. +H
      Colls.: DPL 1214, 1403, 4439; ?RET 10-25-86-F, -I
      Locs.: T, BSCR, CHLA, LANR, VID, M-HARC
      Lit.: BAS69, LMC81, WS85, TMS86
      Pileus can be the size of a dinner plate—a very large fruiting body.  Spores: [325/15/13] (7.0-) 9.1 - 12.9 (-17.5) × (5.2-) 5.9 - 7.6 (-9.5) µm, (L = (9.0-) 10.0 - 12.1 µm; L’ = 11.3 µm; W = 6.3 - 7.2 (-7.4) µm; W’ = 6.8 µm; Q = (1.11-) 1.38 - 1.94 (-2.08); Q = (1.35-) 1.50 - 1.81; Q’ = 1.68).  [ image ]




    18. praelongispora (Murrill) Murrill @!
      Colls.: RET 7-16-87-J, 6-8-00-A
      Locs.: VCSP, M-BCRW
      Lit.: BAS69, JE86, LMC81, TMS86
      Spores: [98/4/4] (8.7-) 9.4 - 12.2 (-16.4) × (3.5-) 3.8 - 4.9 (-5.2) µm, (L = 10.7 - 11.7 µm; L’ = 11.2 µm; W = 4.2 - 4.6 µm; W’ = 4.3 µm; Q = (1.81-) 2.06 - 2.93 (-3.15); Q = 2.49 - 2.80; Q’ = 2.58).  [ image ]




    19. ravenelii (Berk. & M. A. Curtis) Sacc.
      Colls.:
      Locs.:
      Lit.: BAS69, JE86
      The range of this species lies predominantly in the southeastern US.  Warts like hills with radial erosion on sides; bulb from top-shaped to irregular.  Spores: [285/13/11] (7.0-) 8.0 - 11.9 (14.0) × (4.6-) 5.2 - 7.7 (-8.5) µm, (L = (8.3-) 8.5 - 11.1 µm; L’ = 9.7; W = 5.6 - 7.0 (-7.4) µm; W’ = 6.3 µm; Q = (1.23-) 1.33 - 1.81 (-2.50); Q = 1.46 - 1.64 (-1.81); Q’ = 1.54).)  [ image ]




    20. rhoadsii (Murrill) Murrill var. rhoadsii @!
      Colls.: DPL 4310; RET 7-16-87-B, -H
      Locs.: RELS, M-BCRW
      Lit.: BAS69, JE86
      ="species T17"  Worth noting that sometimes the inflated cells in the volva on the pileus have umbrinous contents and that the values of Q are persistently low compared to material from Florida. Spores [combined Florida and Gulf Coast as of 2.ix.2000]: [85/3/3] (9.8-) 10.1 - 14.5 (-18.5) × (3.5-) 3.8 - 4.8 µm, (L = 11.7 - 13.9 µm; L' = 12.1 µm; W = 4.1 - 4.3 µm; W' = 4.3 µm; Q = (2.22-) 2.40 - 3.49 (-4.14); Q = 2.66 - 3.25; Q' = 2.82).)  [ image ]




    21. rhopalopus Bas
      Colls.:
      Locs.:
      Lit.: BAS69, TMS86
      Uncommon to rare.  Bulb is often rooting, but with a distinct and rather abrupt terminus.  Occasionally, the bulb may be top-shaped.  Spores: [110/5/5] (7.3-) 8.0 - 10.9 (-12.5) × (4.8-) 5.4 - 6.8 (-8.1) µm, (L = 8.6 - 10.0 µm; L’ = 9.2 µm; W = 5.9 - 6.4 µm; W’ = 6.1 µm; Q = (1.19-) 1.32 - 1.745 (-1.88); Q = 1.46 - 1.61; Q’ = 1.52).)  [ image ]


    22. roanokensis Coker !
      Colls.: RET 6-10-00-J
      Locs.: RELS
      Lit.: BAS69
      Spores: [40/2/2] (12.0-) 12.8 - 17.1 (-19.5) × 3.6 - 4.9 (-5.0) μm, (L = 14.4 - 14.7 μm; L' = 14.6 μm; W = 4.1 - 4.4 μm; W' = 4.2 μm; Q = (2.62-) 2.73 - 4.08 (-4.67); Q = 3.32 - 3.70; Q' = 3.51).


    23. silvifuga Bas
      Colls.:
      Locs.:
      Lit.: BAS69, JE86
      Spores: [77/5/1] (8.0-) 8.2 - 11.0 (-13.5) × 5.5 - 7.5 (-9.5) µm, (L = 8.9 - 9.7 µm; L' = 9.4 µm; W = 6.2 - 6.6 µm; W' = 6.4 µm; Q = (1.18-) 1.32 - 1.64 (-1.83); Q = 1.42 - 1.51; Q' = 1.46).




    24. subcaligata (A. H. Sm. & P. M. Rea) A. H. Sm. ex Tulloss
      Colls.: DPL 3335
      Locs.: TAMU
      Lit.: BAS69, JE86
      =A. salmonea Thiers.
      Spores (from holotype): [180/8/6] (8.5-) 9.3 - 13.0 (-17.7) × (6.2-) 6.5 - 10.2 (-11.5) µm, (L = 9.9 - 11.9 (-12.4) µm; L’ = 11.4 µm; W = (6.7-) 8.0 - 9.5 µm; W’ = 8.6 µm; Q = (1.05-) 1.14 - 1.54 (-1.93); Q = 1.22 - 1.44 (-1.48); Q’ = 1.33).)  [ image ]




    25. subsolitaria (Murrill) Murrill !
      Colls.: DPL 3215; RET 6-10-00-I (F?)
      Locs.: TC
      Lit.: BAS69
      = A. solitariiformis (Murrill) Murrill
      ="A. crassifolia Bas nom. prov."
      Both normal and yellow-staining specimens were found at the Beaumont foray. Moderately rooting, carrot-like bulb; usually a few forking gills can be found.  Spores: [596/27/27] (7.3-) 9.1 - 14.0 (-21) × (3.5-) 4.2 - 5.2 (-6.5) µm, (L = (8.9-) 9.6 - 12.7 (-13.6) µm; L’ = 11.4 µm; W = (4.1-) 4.3 - 5.1 µm; W’ = 4.6 µm; Q = (1.57-) 2.0 - 3.0 (-3.83); Q = (2.03-) 2.21 - 2.79 (-2.81); Q’ = 2.47).  This entity, apparently when infected by one or more imperfect fungi and/or bacteria, produces sterile or smaller-spored basidiomes that become brilliant yellow or yellow-orange on exposure to air.  In this condition, Q is highly variable.  Spores from material determined as A. crassifolia Bas nom. prov: [45/2/2] (6.6-) 8.7 - 11.5 (-14.0) × (4.2-) 4.5 - 6.0 (-6.3) µm, (L = 10.2 - 10.3 µm; L’ = 10.2 µm; W = 5.1 - 5.5 µm; W’ = 5.3 µm; Q = (1.47-) 1.72 - 2.22 (-2.50); Q = 1.89 - 1.99; Q’ = 1.95).)  [ image ]




    26. thiersii Bas
      Colls.: DPL 600, 1403, 1485-(1499), 5629
      Locs.: T, BLKW, JASP, PTAR
      Lit.: BAS69, WS85, JE86, TMS86
      Spores: [30/2/2] (7.3-) 7.8 - 9.8 (-11.0) × (7.0-) 7.3 - 9.0 (-10.0) µm, (L = 8.3 - 8.7 µm; L’ = 8.6 µm; W = 7.9 - 8.2 µm; W’ = 8.1 µm; Q = 1.0 - 1.10 (-1.17); Q = 1.05 - 1.07; Q’ = 1.06).  [ image ]




    27. westii (Murrill) Murrill
      Colls: DPL 4074, 8117
      Locs.: BLKW, SCRP
      Lit.: BAS69, TUL94, LCI00
      Spores: [140/6/4] (8.5-) 10.5 - 13.9 (-15.5) × (5.0-) 6.0 - 7.8 (-8.2) µm; L = 11.0 - 12.8 µm; L' = 12.2 µm; W = 6.6 - 7.3 µm; W' = 6.9 µm; Q = (1.42-) 1.53 - 2.0 (-2.18); Q = 1.67 - 1.87; Q' = 1.77).  [ image ]


    28. sp-T12 @
      Colls.: RET 7-14-87-J
      Locs.: M-DNFH
      Lit.: -
      Medium size, fine gray pulverulence on cap and stipe, exannulate. Spores: [20/1/1] (6.6-) 7.0 - 9.1 (-10.1) × (5.2-) 5.6 - 7.3 µm; L = 8.2 µm; W = 6.6 µm; Q = (1.15-) 1.19 - 1.33 (-1.43); Q = 1.25).


    29. sp-T13 @
      Colls.: Jenkins 2786 (DTJ)
      Locs.: M-PRVC
      Lit.: -
      White, saccate volva, but with thick inner floccose layer; may be important for defining of section Amidella(?). Spores: [10/1/1] 10.47 - 12.38 × (4.30-) 4.76 (-5.26) µm; L = 11.22 µm; W = 4.76 µm; Q = 2.20 - 2.66; Q = 2.35).


    30. sp-T26
      Colls.: RET 8-7-87-SM1
      Locs.: NBBG
      Lit.: -
      Entirely white with faint, slow yellowing; clamped basidia; small, detersile volval warts; collapsing submembranous, subapical annulus; clavate stipe; odor of chlorine; spores: [20/1/1] 8.4 - 10.5 (10.8) × (5.2-) 5.6 - 6.3 µm; L = 9.6 µm; W = 5.9 µm; Q = (1.33-) 1.49 - 1.88; Q = 1.64) NB: Why didn't RET put this under chlorinosma?


    31. sp-T29
      Colls.: DPL 3125
      Locs.:
      Lit.: -
      An immature specimen w/out spores.  Cap and stipe covered with white powdery universal veil; "chloride of lime smell"; stipe 180 × 11 - 13 mm, slightly rooting and tapered at base, bulbless; universal veil would place the entity in subsection Vittadiniae; photo suggests A. thiersii (above).)



    Section Phalloideae (All regional taxa in this section should be assumed to contain deadly amatoxins [also called amanitins], although the concentration can vary greatly from one specimen to another even within a single species.  Soft to firm stipe bulb with limbate volva, not complexly layered; pileus margin not appendiculate.  Stipe always with a membranous [rarely felted in A. magnivelaris] partial veil.  Basidia usually rather short and always lacking basal clamps.)
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    1. bisporigera G. F. Atk. +@!
      Colls.: RET 10-25-86-J
      Locs.: LANR, ?M-CLKD
      Lit.: LMC81, WS85, JE86, TMS86
      Common.  Often reported as "A. virosa" in US literature.  As far as is known, the European A. virosa does not occur naturally in the Americas.  One collection from Virginia is molecularly similar to the European taxon and may have been introduced (unpublished data).  Contains deadly amatoxins.  Reacts brilliant yellow to 5% - 10% KOH solution.  Spores: [577/25/22] (4.9-) 7.2 - 10.0 (-11.2) × (4.2-) 6.5 - 8.7 (-10.0) µm, (L = (7.8-) 7.9 - 9.4 (-9.6) µm; L’ = 8.5 µm; W = (7.0-) 7.1 - 8.2 (-8.3) µm; W’ = 7.6 µm; Q = (1.0-) 1.03 - 1.26 (-1.70); Q = (1.05-) 1.06 - 1.19 (-1.20); Q’ = 1.12).  [ image ]


    2. elliptosperma G. F. Atk. @
      Colls.: DPL ?5929, ?5947; RET 7-14-87-G
      Locs.: ?THWA, ?M-DNFH
      Lit.:
      Formerly called "species T20"; in this list. At the moment, we are referring collections originally determined as "A. hygroscopica" to this entry and marking the relevant data with a question mark.  The name "A. verna" (see below) may have occasionally been used to reference this species in the literature.  Medium sized, white, pointed bulb, thin limbate volval. There are a number of similar species that are addressed on the species page for A. elliptosperma.  Contains deadly amatoxins.  The range of this species extends to at least central New York [state].  Spores [including type]: [110/4/4] (8.0-) 8.7 -11.2 (-11.5) × (5.8-) 5.9 - 7.5 (-7.8) μm, (L = 9.6 - 9.9 μm; L' = 9.8 μm; W = 6.5 - 6.9 μm; W' = 6.8 μm; Q = (1.25-) 1.29 - 1.60 (-1.71); Q = 1.40 - 1.50; Q' = 1.45).)




    3. suballiacea (Murrill) Murrill
      Colls.: RET 1-30-89-AWR
      Locs.: ARAN
      Lit.: TMS86
      The name A. verna may have been applied in the past to specimens assignable here.  Spores: [97/5/4] (7.2-) 8.0 - 10.5 (-11.5) × 6.5 - 8.8 (-9.2) μm, (L = 8.7 - 10.1 μm; L' = 9.1 μm; W = 7.2 - 8.0 μm; W' = 7.5 μm; Q = (1.04-) 1.11 - 1.39 (-1.50); Q = 1.20 - 1.28; Q' = 1.22).  [ image ]


    4. verna sensu auct. amer. orient.
      Colls.:
      Locs.:
      Lit.: LMC81, TMS86
      So far as is known, the European A. verna does not occur in the Americas.


    5. Amanita virosiformis

      virosiformis (Murrill) Murrill !
      Colls.: RET 6-10-00-B [NAMA 2000 voucher 189 (F)]
      Locs.: ?
      Lit.: LMC81, TMS86
      =A. tenuifolia (Murrill) Murrill.
      Spores: [166/7/4] (9.5-) 10.2 - 13.8 (-16.0) × (3.8-) 4.2 - 5.8 (-6.5) μm, (L = 11.2 - 12.3 μm; L' = 11.9 μm; W = 4.4 - 5.5 μm; W' = 4.8 μm; Q = (1.74-) 2.08 - 3.06 (-3.62); Q = 2.25 - 2.76; Q' = 2.50.  [ image ]


    6. Amanita sp. S4

       sp-S4 +
      Colls.: DPL 2815; RET 10-25-86-C, -L
      Locs.: BTNP, LANR, NBBG
      Lit.: -
      White undecorated pileus, globose bulb with saccate universal veil, chlorine-type odor, pileus negative with KOH, tyrosinase-positive, laccase-positive only in immature basidiomes, stature elliptosperma-like.  For the moment, it is segregated from the latter because of its slightly narrower (and, hence, more elongate) spores.  This entity has also been encountered in South Carolina and West Virginia.  Spores: [165/7/5] (7.3-) 8.4 - 11.2 (-13.5) × (4.9-) 5.5 - 6.8 (-8.5) µm; L = 9.0 - 9.7 (-10.3) µm; L' = 9.6 µm; W = 5.9 - 6.3 µm; W' = 6.0 µm; Q = (1.30-) 1.41 - 1.83 (-2.0); Q = 1.50 - 1.60 (-1.69); Q' = 1.58).


    7. sp-T19 @
      Colls.: RET 7-17-87-E, 7-18-87-C, -J
      Locs.: M-BCRW, M-CYCR
      Lit.: -
      Small, white, delicate, somewhat watersoaked appearance in pileus; very close to A. gwyniana except the volval limb seems thinner and the bulb is narrower than in Coker's description; spores: [40/2/2] (9.1-) 9.4 - 11.2 (-12.6) × (6.3-) 6.6 - 7.7 (-8.7) µm; L = L' = 10.5 µm; W = 7.1 - 7.5 µm; W' = 7.3 µm; Q = (1.24-) 1.34 - 1.57 (-1.64); Q = 1.45 - 1.47; Q' = 1.46).


    8.   sp-T25 @
      Colls.: RET 7-18-87-D
      Locs.:
      Lit.: -
      Spores: [].


    9.   sp-T27
      Colls.: RET 1-30-89-A
      Locs.:
      Lit.: -
      This small white entity has some characters in common with A. suballiacea (Murrill) Murrill; but has rather plentiful ovoid to broadly clavate inflated cells in the interior of the universal veil tissue on the bulb; it may be A. suballiacea; or it may(?) belong in section Lepidella. Spores: [25/1/1] (8.0-) 9.0 - 10.5 (-12.5) × (7.0-) 7.2 - 9.0 µm, (L = 9.6 µm; W = 7.9 µm; Q = 1.11 - 1.35; Q = 1.22).



    Section Validae (Universal veil almost always friable, appearing as a small limb only in taxa with a marginate stipe bulb.  Stipe always annulate.  Pilei may be brightly colored.  Basidia usually rather short and always lacking basal clamps.  While some of the taxa in this section may not contain a hemolytic compound, a number of them do.  Therefore, ingestion of species in this section without thorough cooking is to be strongly discouraged.  Experimentation with eating amanitas is not a good idea at any rate.)
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    1. aestivalis Singer ex Singer
      Colls.:
      Locs.:
      Lit.: LMC81
      Uncommon.  With habit resembling that of A. brunnescens; however, staining reaction is very slow.  Pileus is dominantly pure white with some yellowish tint over discb at times.  At the moment this taxon is maintained distinct from A. brunnescens (below).  Spores: [200/9/6] (5.8-) 7.0 - 9.5 (-10.9) × (5.0-) 6.8 - 8.8 (-10.5) µm, (L = (7.6-) 7.9 - 8.6 µm; L’ = 8.4 µm; W = (7.2-) 7.5 - 8.0 µm; W’ = 7.8 µm; Q = (1.0-) 1.02 - 1.14 (-1.20); Q = 106 - 1.08 (-1.09); Q’ = 1.07).  [ image ]




    2. brunnescens G. F. Atk. @!
      Colls.:
      Locs.:
      Lit.: LMC81, TMS86
      =A. brunnescens var. pallida L. Krieg.
      Extremely common.  Spores: [35/2/2] (7.0-) 7.5 - 9.2 (-9.5) × (6.5-) 7.0 - 8.5 (-9.2) µm, (L = 8.2 - 8.7 µm; L’ = 8.4 µm; W = 7.6 - 8.0 µm; W’ = 7.8 µm; Q = (1.0-) 1.03 - 1.15 (-1.18); Q = 1.08; Q’ = 1.08).  [ image ]


    3. citrina sensu auct. amer. orient. H
      Colls.:
      Locs.:
      Lit.: WS85, TMS86
      The European A. citrina (now correctly called A. mappa) apparently does not exist in the Americas.  Collections referred to this name in eastern North America represent one of three morphologically similar species of which the easiest to distinguish is A. lavendula, see below.




    4. flavoconia G. F. Atk. var. flavoconia +@!
      Colls.:
      Locs.:
      Lit.: LMC81, JE86, TMS86
      Extremely common, with a variety of symbionts.  Spores: [139/8/8] (6.5-) 6.8 - 9.0 (-10.6) × (4.8-) 5.0 - 7.0 (-8.9) µm, (L = 7.2 - 8.2 (-8.6) µm; L’ = 7.9 µm; W = (5.3-) 5.5 - 6.9 µm; W’ = 6.0 µm; Q = (1.08-) 1.15 - 1.50 (-1.64); Q = 1.21 - 1.43 (-1.49); Q’ = 1.33).  [ image ]




    5. flavorubens (Berk. & Mont.) Sacc. @
      Colls.:
      Locs.:
      Lit.: LMC81, WS85, JE86, TMS86
      =A. flavorubescens G. F. Atk.
      Includes "affin. flavorubescens."  Spores: [180/9/8] (7.4-) 7.8 - 11.0 (-12.6) × (4.9-) 5.4 - 7.0 (-8.4) µm, (L = 8.3 - 9.7 ( -10.7) µm; L’ = 9.2 µm; W = (5.5-) 5.7 - 6.6 µm; W’ = 6.1 µm; Q = (1.17-) 1.28 - 1.76 (-1.96); Q = ( 1.34-) 1.37 - 1.67; Q’ = 1.52).  [ image ]




    6. lavendula (Coker) Tulloss, K. W. Hughes, Rodrig. Cayc., & Kudzma H
      Colls.: RET 12-2-89-I
      Locs.: ??
      Lit.: LMC81, JE86
      (Extremely common, although not always revealing any lavender coloring.  This species can be distinguished from two very similar taxa in eastern North America by spore shape and genetic sequencing.  Spores: [140/7/6] (5.8-) 6.0 - 8.0 (-9.7) × (4.9-) 5.3 - 7.0 (-8.1) μm, (L = 6.5 - 7.2 μm; L' = 6.9 μm; W = 5.8 - 6.4 μm; W' = 6.1 μm; Q = (1.02-) 1.05 - 1.29 (-1.49); Q = 1.10 - 1.18; Q' = 1.13).  [ image ]




    7. maryaliceae Tulloss nom. prov. !
      Colls.: DPL 8075, RET 6-10-00-N
      Locs.: MILC, RELS
      Lit.: -
      Pileus 50 - 90 mm wide, entirely white, unstaining, sometimes appear almost translucent, 5 - 6.5 mm thick over stipe, with universal veil as easily removed white warts, becoming grayish with age.  Lamellae free to narrowly adnate, white in mass (sometimes slightly pinkish at first), white in side view, 3 - 7 mm broad; lamellulae truncate to rounded truncate subtruncate to subattenuate to attenuate, sometimes adjacent to stipe rather than pileus margin, unevenly distributed, of diverse lengths, plentiful.  Stipe 57 - 135 × 5 - 12 mm, white, unchanging when cut or bruised, with bulb 22 - 42 × 14.5 - 21 mm, subnapiform to subradicating, partial veil apical to subapical, white; universal veil not evident or as detersile patch(es) easily left in soil or in broken collars or irregular rows (sometimes faint and sometimes suggesting the “collars” seen in A. muscaria), off-white to very pale grayish, darkening in age.  Spores: [99/5/5] (6.3-) 7.0 - 9.0 (-9.5) µm, (L = 7.3 - 8.1 µm; L' = 7.8 µm; W = 5.3 - 5.7 µm; W' = 5.5 µm; Q = (1.19-) 1.25 - 1.62 (-1.71); Q = 1.35 - 1.50; Q' = 1.42).  This undescribed species is known from as far north as western Massachusetts and may occur as far south as the neovolcanic region of central Mexico.  [ image ]


    8. cf. porphyria Albertini & Schwein. : Fr.
      Colls.:
      Locs.:
      Lit.: TMS86
      ?.




    9. rubescens sensu auct. amer orient. @H!
      Colls.:
      Locs.:
      Lit.: LMC81, WS85, TMS86
      ="A. amerirubescens Tulloss nom. prov."  Extremely common.  This entry includes specimens with yellowish underside of the partial veil which do not represent the f. annulosulfurea of Europe.  Spores: [40/2/2] (7.0-) 7.3 - 9.5 (- 9.8) × (5.6-) 5.9 - 7.0 (-7.3) µm, (L = 7.9 - 9.1 µm; L’ = 8.5 µm; W = 6.4 - 6.6 µm; W’ = 6.5 µm; Q = (1.05-) 1.14 - 1.46 (-1.53); Q = 1.23 - 1.38; Q’ = 1.31).  [ image ]


    10. spissa (Fr.) Kummer
      Colls.: DPL 9172, 9371
      Locs.: BLKW, LANR
      Lit.: LMC81, TMS86
      Doubtful determination.  A number of collections with this determination appear to be A. submaculata.


    11. spissa var. alba Coker nom. inval.
      Colls.:
      Locs.:
      Lit.: LMC81
      Poorly known taxon.  Type consists only of a spore print.  Spores (per Jenkins): 6.3 - 7.5 × 4.2 - 5.0 µm; Q' = 1.50.




    12. submaculata Peck
      Colls.: DPL 9172, 9277
      Locs.: BLKW
      Lit.: ??
      Many collections from region of interest were formerly called "A. spissa."  Spores: [406/19/16] (6.3-) 7.0 - 9.8 (-13.3) × (4.5-) 4.9 - 6.6 (-8.4) µm, (L = (7.2-) 7.8 - 8.8 (-8.9) µm; L’ = 8.4 µm; W = (5.2-) 5.5 - 6.2 µm; W’ = 5.7 µm; Q = (1.18-) 1.25 - 1.67 (-2.02); Q = (1.32-) 1.36 - 1.56 (-1.64); Q’ = 1.47).  [ image ]


    13. sp-T3 +
      Colls.: RET 10-25-86-K
      Locs.: LANR
      Lit.:
      A white, small, annulate, rooting entity with a pronounced odor of ripe pears. Spores: [20/1/1] (6.6-) 7.0 - 8.4 (-8.7) × 4.5 - 5.9 µm; L = 7.6 µm; W = 5.1 µm; Q = (1.24-) 1.30 - 1.71; Q = 1.48).


    14. sp-T4 +
      Colls.: RET 10-25-86-G, 10-15-89-A
      Locs.: BCR, M-HENL
      Lit.: -
      A slender, medium to large mushroom with brownish gray virgate pileus; thin, membranous, white, nearly apical annulus; often with an elongate somewhat rooting bulb; odor absent to faint to faintly phenolic; very like species 18 of my New Jersey Pine Barrens Amanita list, but that has a more nearly ovoid bulb and a fruity odor. Spores: [20/1/1] (5.9-) 6.3 - 9.1 (-11.9) × 4.5 - 5.6 (-7.0) µm; L = 7.9 µm; W = 5.1 µm; Q = (1.20-) 1.27 - 1.63 (-1.75); Q = 1.53)


    15. sp-T15 @
      Colls.: RET 7-17-87-B; Jenkins 2795
      Locs.: M, M-BCRW, M-PRWM
      Lit.: -
      Little yellow pileus; suggesting gemmata, but with amyloid spores.  Spores: .


    16. sp-T28 @
      Colls.: DPL 3730
      Locs.: LANR
      Lit.: -
      Spores: .


    17. sp-T34 !
      Colls.: RET 6-10-00-K [NAMA 2000 voucher #292 (F)]
      Locs.: ?
      Lit.: -
      Olivaceous over margin, orange-brown over disc, faintly virgate.



    Not assigned to section (none at this time).


    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    [BAS69] Bas, C. 1969. Morphology and subdivision of Amanita and a monograph of its section Lepidella. Persoonia 5: 285-579.

    [CO88] Cibula, W. G. and C. L. Ovrebo. 1988. Mycosociological studies of mycorrhizal fungi in two Loblolly Pine plots in Mississippi and some relationships with remote sensing. Remote Sensing for Resource Inventory, Planning and Monitoring, Proc. 2nd Forest Service Remote Sensing Application Conference, J. D. Greer, ed. (Slidell, Louisiana and NSTL, Mississippi, April 11- 15, 1988): 268-307.

    [COK17] Coker, W. C. 1917. ?

    [JE77] Jenkins, D. T. 1977. A taxonomic and nomenclatural study of the genus Amanita section Amanita for North America. Biblioth. Mycol. 57: 1-126.

    [JE86] Jenkins, D. T.. 1986. Amanita in North America. Mad River, Eureka. vi+198 pp.

    [JE88] Jenkins, D. T.. 1988. A new species of Amanita from North America: Amanita levistriata. Mycotaxon 32: 415-419.

    [LEW78] Lewis, D. P. 1978. Agaricales of southeast Texas. M.S. thesis. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, Texas). x+168 pp.

    [LCI00] Lewis, D. P. and W. G. Cibula. 2000. Studies of Gulf Coast agarics (Basidiomycota: Agaricaceae); note on some interesting and rare species. Texas J. Sci. 52(4) supplement: 65-78.

    [LMC81] Lewis, D. P. and J. L. McGraw, Jr. 1981. Agaricales, Family Amanitaceae, of the Big Thicket. Southwestern Naturalist 26(1): 1-4.

    [MM85] Metzler, S. and V. Metzler. 1985?. Texas Mycological Society composite species list 1977-1985. mimeo. 7 pp. (in reduced type form).

    [MM92] Metzler, S. and V. Metzler.. 1992. Texas mushrooms. (Univ. Texas Press, Austin). vii+350 pp.

    [TMS81] Texas Mycological Society. 1981. ?

    [THI57] Thiers, H. D. 1957. The agaric flora of Texas. I. New species of agarics and boletes. Mycologia 49: 707-722.

    [TU84] Tulloss, R. E. 1984. Distribution and taxonomic notes on Amanita mutabilis. Mycologia 76: 555-558.

    [TU05]Tulloss, R. E. 2005. Amanita—distribution in the Americas with comparison to eastern and southern Asia and notes on spore character variation with latitude and ecology. Mycotaxon 93: 189-231.

    [TUJ85] Tulloss, R. E. and D. T. Jenkins. 1985. Validation of Amanita longipes. Mycotaxon 22: 439-442.

    [TUL94] Tulloss, R. E. and D. P. Lewis. 1994. Amanita westii—taxonomy and distribution. A rare species from states bordering the Gulf of Mexico. Mycotaxon 50: 131-138.

    [WS85] Weber, N. S. and A. H. Smith. 1985. A field guide to southern mushrooms. Michigan Univ. Press. viii+280 pp.



    Last changed 1 June 2017.  [ top of page ]
    This page is maintained by R. E. Tulloss.
    This page was initiated in 2007.
    Photographs may be copyright by the photographers (see individual species pages, if credits not listed on this page).


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