This species is fairly common in season from the mountains of the southwestern U.S. to the neovolcanic zone of Mexico. At present, the most thorough composite description is found on the technical tab of this page.
The glutinous cap of this species is white, with rusty tan in the center that quickly fades to white (approximately by mid-radius). Its shape is irregularly bell-shaped to broadly bell-shaped to convex; and, at times, it has a broad umbo. The cap's flesh is white. The cap's margin is nonstriate, curves inward at first and downward at maturity, splits for a short distance rather frequently, and does not extend beyond the ends of the gills. The slime layer is orangish brown to rusty tan in the youngest specimens seen and retains this color longest over the cap's umbo; in mature material, the slime is colorless or nearly so over most of the cap.
The gills of this mushroom are very narrowly attached to the stem, close, white, and have unpigmented edges. The short gills are not squarely cut-off, are of diverse lengths, and occur between almost all pairs of full-length gills.
The ringless stem is white, staining rusty tan (like the color of the center of the cap) where handled, is roughly cylindric, narrows upward, and has a base that is often curved rather abruptly to one side. At the bottom of the stem there are white "rootlets" binding the forest litter to the stipe base. The stem flesh is white. The colorless slime layer is present from the point of last contact with developing cap to the stem's base.
Neither odor nor taste has been recorded for this mushroom.
The spores of this entity measure (4.0–) 4.2 – 5.5 (–6.5) × (3.0–) 3.4 – 4.3 (–5.9) µm and are subglobose to broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid, minutely spiny, almost always inamyloid, and rarely dextrinoid. Clamps are common at bases of basidia.
This species is known from the mountainous southwestern states of the U.S. to the neovolcanic zone of central Mexico.
Tulloss & Geml
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Olive text indicates a specimen that has not been
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where data is missing or uncertain.
The following material is based upon original research by R. E. Tulloss.
Macroscopic description derived from exsiccata and collectors’ brief notes. Microscopic description by RET.
20 - 50 mm wide, somewhat sordid light tan in exsiccata, with disc pale brown to brown in exsiccata, glutinous when fresh, subconic at first, irregularly campanulate to broadly campanulate, becoming planar with age, with broad umbo; context white, ??; margin nonstriate, incurved at first, decurved even at maturity, not extending beyond lamellae, often slightly rimose; gluten layer at first orange brown (in smallest pinheads) to pale tan to [?olivaceous] brown (red-brown or rusty-brown or golden brown over disc) fading to colorless or nearly so (although often pale brown over disc).
free to narrowly adnate, close, white in mass and in side view, ventricose; lamellulae attenuate to subattenuate to rounded subattenuate to truncate with attenuate tooth at pileus context, of diverse lengths, common (between almost all pairs of lamellae).
40 - 73 × 4 - 6 mm, subcylindric, narrowing upward, white, with lower half distinctly brownish in exsiccatum, covered ?evenly with light brown or "pale" gluten, with base often curved abruptly to one side (within substrate), with white pseudorhizoids binding substrate to stipe base; bulb lacking or as slight swelling at stem base; context white, solid (distinct central cylinder filled with sordid tissue in exsiccata); partial veil absent; gluten in more or less even layer below last point of stipe-pileus contact, light brown to rusty tan or pallid.
[Note: Interlacing gluten-retaining hyphae from pileus and stipe create a transient, gluten-coated, cortina-like structure in young material.—ed.]
On pileus: filamentous undifferentiated hyphae supporting gluten pile 1.5 – 4.3 µm wide in non-terminal segments, branching, gelatinizing extensively in older material, with elements collapsing and gelatinizing last over disc, extensively gelatinized in mature basidiomes and then often with gaps exposing pileus context, with segments occasionally with pale yellow vacuolar pigment, erect at first, then collapsing in tightly compacted criss-crossing fascicles of diverse widths; terminal cells cylindric to subcylindric, often with slight ellipsoid expansion at apex, [29/5/2] (14-) 24 – 85 (–95) × (1.4-) 1.5 – 3.6 (-4.5) µm, with basal septa 0.9 – 3.0 µm wide, with mean length = 50 μm, with mean tip width = 2.6 μm, with length/tip-width ratio = (5.8-) 10.8 – 42 (-43) (mean = 20), rounded at apex, with pigments as in nonterminal hyphal segments; clamps abundant, prominent. On stipe: ??.
longitudinally acrophysalidic; filamentous undifferentiated hyphae 1.6 – 12.0 µm wide, branching, dominant in interior as well as at surface; acrophysalides 60 – 144 × 8.5 – 18.5 µm, relatively commonly with one or more subterminal cells similarly inflated (e.g., 9.2 – 12.0 µm wide); vascular hyphae 2.0 – 7.7 µm wide, unevenly distributed, sordid yellowish, in infrequent clusters, subsinuous, occasionally branching, co-entangling, with insoluble content as in Amanita; clamps common.
[214/12/6] (4.0–) 4.3 – 5.5 (–6.5) × (3.0–) 3.4 – 4.5 (–5.9) µm, (L = 4.6 – 5.0 µm; L’ = 4.8 µm; W = 3.6 – 4.0 µm; W’ = 3.8 µm; Q = (1.05–) 1.11 – 1.43 (–1.59); Q = 1.22 – 1.32 (-1.38); Q’ = 1.27), hyaline, colorless, thin-walled, inamyloid, dominantly to entirely echinulate (at 1250× with or without Nomarski differential interference contrast), adaxially flattened, infrequently subglobose, otherwise broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid; apiculus sublateral, cylindric; contents dominantly monoguttulate in some sections, dominantly granular in others; color in deposit unknown.
Solitary to subgregarious. Tlaxcala, Mexico:
At 2800 m elev. In leaf litter and extensively
decayed wood, among shrubs in mixed forest including
Abies religiosa, Pinus, and Quercus.
Arizona, U.S.A.: At 2090± -
2390± m elev. In litter of forest
dominated by Pseudotsuga menziesii and
Tlaxco - Cerro El Peñon, km 4-5 Camino El Rosario,
El Rodeo [19.6886° N/ 98.2339° W, 2720 m], nrITS seq'd.),
17.vii.1992 Reyes Guevara & Pérez
Ramirez 1595 (FCME 5180), 5.ix.1992 Espinosa Arreola
& Pérez-Ramirez 1655 (FCME 5181 as “L. illinita
var. argillacea”), 31.viii.1994 A. Estrada
Torres, L. Varela Fregoso, R. E. Tulloss, etc. s.n.
[Tulloss 8-31-94-E] (RET 135-7, nrITS & nrLSU
seq'd.; TLXM), 20.viii.1998 Anna
Gerenday s.n. [Tulloss 8-20-98-C] (RET 293-2, nrITS
& nrLSU seq'd.; TLXM); unkn. loc., 15.viii.1992 Puebla
Amado & Hernandez Muñoz 458 (FCME 5354).
U.S.A.: ARIZONA—Cochise Co.
- Coronado Nat. For., Chiricahua Mtns., Pinery Cyn.
Campg., 4 km SE of Pine Cyn Rd., CMP site 10
[31.9330° N/ 109.2711° W, 2091-2134 m],
15.viii.1989 R. M. Chapman s.n. [CMP0152] (RET 418-5,
nrITS eq'd.), 30.viii.1993 F. H. Nishida s.n. [CMP
3806-2] (RET 419-6);
Coronado Nat. For., Chirichau Mtns., Onion Saddle at
jct. w/ rd. Rustler Pk., CMP site 28 [31.9332° N/
109.2264° W, 2326 m], 24.viii.1993 F. H. Nishida 5124
[CMP3714] (in herb. F. H. Nishida; RET 419-4, nrITS
& nrLSU seq'd.), 28.viii.1993 A. Ortiz s.n.
[CMP3121] (RET 419-9, nrITS & nrLSU seq'd.),
30.viii.1993 S. B. Fleming s.n. [CMP3148] (RET 419-3,
nrITS & nrLSU seq'd.);
Coronado Nat. For., Chiricahua Mtns., jeep tr. to
Shaw Pk., 8 km NE of Onion Saddle, CMP site 56
[2382 m], 24.viii.1993
F. H. Nishida s.n. [CMP3653] (RET 419-8, nrITS &
Coronado Nat. For., Chiricahua Mtns., CMP site
prob. viii.1997 Joaquín
Cifuentes-Blanco 3084 [CMP0443] (RET 419-7, nrITS
seq'd.), 19.viii.1997 J. Cifuentes 3916 [CMP5184]
(RET 419-1, nrITS seq'd.);
Coronado Nat. For., Chiricahua Mtns., CMP site
#??, 19.viii.1997 S. L.
Benson s.n. [CMP4802] (RET 418-10, nrITS &
Coconino Co. - San Francisco Peaks area, 22.viii.2012
Erik Nelson s.n. [mushoomobserver #108540]
(RET 513-6, nrITS & nrLSU seq'd.)
New collections with better annotation would be
Macroscopically similar material from Florida and
Texas appears differentiable from the Chiricahua
Mtns. material at least on the basis of spore size
and shape. For purposes of comparison, a
sporograph (red figure) from the macroscopically
subillinita is presented here:
Each spore data set is intended to comprise a set of measurements from a single specimen made by a single observer;
and explanations prepared for this site talk about specimen-observer pairs associated with each data set.
Combining more data into a single data set is non-optimal because it obscures observer differences
(which may be valuable for instructional purposes, for example) and may obscure instances in which
a single collection inadvertently contains a mixture of taxa.