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[ amanitins ]  [ haemolytic comp. ]  [ muscimol ]  [ norleucine ]   [ phenoloxidases ]  [ pigments ]  [ trace elements ]

Primary and secondary products

  • Positive Wieland test for amanitins in a specimen of Amanita bisporigera G.. F. Atk.
    Photograph gift of the late Col. R. Davies (South Carolina, U.S.A.)
    Amanitins (amatoxins), phalloidins - Phalloides syndrome - delayed onset, life threatening - so far as known restricted to Amanita sect. Phalloideae in the Amanitaceae.

    A short list of recent papers on unusual genetics of amanitins and related subjects can be found here.

    Links to the Walton Lab site concerning interesting research related to amanitins can be found here.

  • Haemolytic compounds - short term onset - gastrointestinal impact - so far as known restricted to Amanita sect. Validae in the Amanitaceae.

  • Muscimol and ibotenic acid - Pantherina Syndrome - short term onset - nervous system and gastrointestinal impact, possibility of coma, fatal in large doses - so far as known restricted to Amanita sect. Amanita in the Amanitaceae.

  • Norleucine, Allenic (and similar amino acids?) - Smithiana Syndrome - delayed onset - known severe impact on liver and kidney - so far as known restricted to Amanita sect. Lepidella (and, depending on classification of A. proxima Dumée, sect. Amidella) in the Amanitaceae.

    A short list of recent papers relating to the toxins of Amanita smithiana Bas can be found here.


  • Laccase - ...

  • Tyrosinase - among other functions (not all known) this enzyme is responsible in many fungi and plants for catalyzing oxidation of a phenolic compound at the outset of the pigment making cycles responsible for (for example) melanins, betaxanthins, and betapurpurins (see "pigments," below. The staining reaction in the rubescent taxa of Amanita sect. Validae is correlated with, and probably utilizes, the tyrosinase initiate cycle for melanin which first produces a pigment perceived as wine red. The breaking of cells and exposure of their contents to oxygen in the air permits this reaction to take place. Hence, it appears to the observer as a "bruising" reaction.


  • Betapurpurins -

  • Betaxanthins -

  • Melanins - These are pigments widespread in many kingdoms

Trace elements

A brief introduction to trace element accumulation in amanitas prepared by Dr. Jan Borovička for the Amanita Studies site is available here.

  • Hyperaccumulation of heavy metals