The following is based on the description of Bas
(1969). "The most remarkable feature of A.
xanthogala is undoubtedly the presence of an oily, yellow latex given out when the fruit body is damaged.
The cap of Amanita xanthogala is 60 - 140 mm wide, hemispherical, then
convex to plane, finally plano-concave with a slight
umbo, whitish or yellowish to pale fulvo-cinnamomeous, dry, with a nonsulcate, appendiculate margin. The cap is
set closely with fulvo- to rufo-cinnamomeous, large, pyramidal, radially fibrillose warts, and small,
subconical, subflocculose warts with small, flocculose-felted patches between.
The gills are crowded to moderately crowded, free, moderately broad (7 - 17 mm),
cream to pale yellow, and deeper yellow towards the edge. The short gills are attenuate.
The stem is 100 - 160 × 15 - 25 mm, attenuate upward, solid, annulate at first,
exannulate with age, and with a clavate to subclavate
base 20 - 35 mm wide. It is yellowish-whitish to whitish or pinkish fawn. It bears a pruinose-furfuraceous
covering of volva above. This trends to fawn brown to
rufo-cinnamomeus, floccose warts arranged in more or less
transverse rows proceeding down the stem. There is no concentration of volval material at the stem's base.
The spores measure 8.5 - 10.0 (-10.5) × 5.5 - 7.0 µm and are amyloid and
ellipsoid to elongate. Clamps are present at bases of basidia.
This species was originally described from material of North Borneo
collected by E. J. H. Corner in "mountain oak
forest." Any information on what taxa comprise
"mountain oak forest" in North Borneo would be
greatly appreciated by the editors of these pages.
Despite his opposition to creating
single species stirpes, Bas based such a stirps on A.
xanthogala because of it extraordinary property of
exuding yellow "latex." Bas notes that the
presence of the lacticiferous hyphae are a major
character he used to separate A. xanthogala from
stirps Virginea (see A. virginea Massee).
Once again (see A. subsolitaria (Murrill) Murrill),
I must wonder if A. xanthogala could possibly be based on "diseased" material
of a species close to A. virginea. On the other hand, the description of the latex as "oily"
does not fit the more watery exudate of the yellowing species of Amanita for which there is good
supportive evidence of their being in a "diseased" condition.—R. E. Tulloss
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L (in liquid p.p.)
The following text may make multiple use of each data field.
The field may contain magenta text presenting data from a type study
and/or revision of other original material cited in the protolog of the present taxon.
Macroscopic descriptions in magenta are a combination of data from the protolog and
additional observations made on the exiccata during revision of the cited original
The same field may also contain black text, which is data from a revision of the present
taxon (including non-type material and/or material not cited in the protolog).
Paragraphs of black text will be labeled if further subdivision of
this text is appropriate.
Olive text indicates a specimen that has not been
thoroughly examined (for example, for microscopic details) and marks other places in the text
where data is missing or uncertain.
The data below is derived from the protolog.
from the protolog: The basidiome is medium to large and robust.
from the protolog: 60 - 140 mm wide, whitish or yellowish to pale fulvo-cinnamon, hemispheric at first, then convex to planar, finally plano-concave, dry; context white, turning pale to deep yellow on exposure, 7 - 12 mm thick near center, firm when young, rather soft in mature specimens, exuding abundant oily bright yellow "latex"; margin nonsulcate, appendiculate; universal veil as two forms of warts—large (pyramidal, radially fibrillose, closely set, fulvo-cinnamon to rufo-cinnamon, up to 5 × 7 mm) and small (subconic, subflocculose)—with small flocculose patches between warts.
from the protolog: free, crowded to moderately crowded, cream to pale yellow, with yellow more intense toward edge, 7 - 17 mm broad; lamellulae attenuate.
from the protolog: 100 - 160 × 15 - 25 mm, yellowish-whitish to whitish or pale pinkish fawn, narrowing upward; bulb subclavate to clavate, 20 - 35 mm wide, often tapering to root-like extension; contents solid, similar to that in pileus except with latex scanty and with basal region red-brown where eaten by insect larvae; partial veil floccose-membranous, thick and broad, white above, with edge and underside pallid (cinnamon to rusty fawn), tearing and deciduous with age; universal veil as pruinose-furfuraceous covering gradually passing into fawn brown to rufo-cinnamon floccose warts arranged in more or less transerse rows, without concentration of such material at stipe base.
from the protolog: barely differentiated; filamentous undifferentiated hyphae 3 - 10 μm wide, nongelatinized, some with yellowish refractive contents.
from the protolog: bilateral, probably without terminal inflated cells, with divergent hyphae up to 25 μm wide, with abundant lacticferous hyphae with yellow refractive contents occasionally projecting through hymenium as scattered "pseudocystidia" (3 - 8 μm wide, filiform, sometimes branching, thin-walled, not or barely projecting beyond basidia, with yellow refractive contents).
from the protolog: ramose to irregularly inflated.
from the protolog: 45 - 60 × 9 - 10 μm, 4-sterigmate; clamps abundant.
from the protolog: On pileus: yellow to yellow-brown in alkaline solution, all elements anticlinally oriented; filamentous hyphae inconspicuous and somewhat difficult to detect at first, 2 - 8 μm wide, branching, very thin-walled, most abundant in wart base and in tufts between warts; inflated cells dominating, in long erect chains, ellipsoid to pyriform to (occasionally) globose or elongate or irregularly shaped, up to 80 × 50 μm; vascular hyphae scattered, yellowish. On stipe: similar to tissue on cap, but with larger proportion of filamentous hyphae and larger proportion of elements with yellowish contents including some inflated cells.
from the protolog: longitudinally acrophysalidic; filamentous hyphae 3 - 10 μm wide, branching; acrophysalides slenderly clavate, up to 400 × 70 μm, sometimes subtended by single similar cell or short chain of similar cells.
lamella edge tissue
from the protolog: inflated cells mainly clavate, also pyriform to ellipsoid, up to 50 × 30 μm.
from protolog: [30/3/3] 8.5 - 10.0 (-10.5) × 5.5 - 7.0 μm, (Q = 1.40 - 1.65; Q = 1.45 - 1.55), colorless, thin-walled, amyloid, ellipsoid to elongate; apiculus not described; contents "mostly" as one large refractive body; color in deposit not recorded.
from protolog: MALAYSIA: SABAH (Isl. Borneo)—Kinabalu Nat. Pk. [KNP], Mt. Kinabalu, Kundasan [ca. 6°00' N/ 116°32' E, ca. 1500 m], 5.ix.1961 E. J. H. Corner RSNB 2793 (paratype, L); KNP, Mt. Kinabalu, Mesilau Camp [ca. 6°00 N/ 116°36' E, ca. 1400 m], 2.iv.1964 E. J. H. Corner RSNB 8053a (holotype, L, dried specimens, fragments in liquid, color slides), 9.iv.1964 E. J. H. Corner RSNB 8053b (paratype, L).
more protolog: "The most remarkable feature of A. xanthogala is undoubtedly the presence of an oily, yellow latex, given out whenthe fruit-body is damaged. However, the other characters of this species so strongly suggest those of species of subsection Solitareae that I do not hesitate to place it there.
"In his field-notes Corner mentioned a general resemblance between A. xanthogala and A. virginea. It is only the lactescent flesh that keeps me from placing A. xanthogala in stirps Virginea.
"In the same field-notes Corner stated that A. virginea is also a very sappy species (he did not mention this feature in his field-notes on A. virginea). But I hae found vascular hyphae in abundance only in the gills of that species. Nevertheless young, fresh fruit-bodies of A. virginea should be carefully examined for this character.
"Fundamentally the lacticiferous hyphae of A. xanthogala are probably not different from the oleiferous [vascular—ed.] hyphae in related species. Those in the pileipellis of A. timida showed the same set of reactions as described above for the lacticiferous hyphae of the present species, except for paler yellow colors in KOH and NH4OH.
"In young specimens of A. xanthogala the coloured, lacticiferous hyphae in the volval tissue are sometimes so abundant that they more or less conceal the colourless elements. To my way of thinking, however, the lacticiferous hyphae in the olva should in the first instance be ignored, if volva structures are compared for possible relationships."
The following image provides a comparison of the spore shape and size for the present species and A. virginea:
—R. E. Tulloss
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"Yellow Milk Lepidella"
1. Amanita xanthogala, North Borneo.
Dr. C. Bas (1969) - (1) North Borneo, reproduced by courtesy of Persoonia, Leiden, the Netherlands.
Each spore data set is intended to comprise a set of measurements from a single specimen made by a single observer;
and explanations prepared for this site talk about specimen-observer pairs associated with each data set.
Combining more data into a single data set is non-optimal because it obscures observer differences
(which may be valuable for instructional purposes, for example) and may obscure instances in which
a single collection inadvertently contains a mixture of taxa.