The cap of A. toxica is 50 - 80 mm wide, yellowish-cream and
beige over the center, hemispheric at first, becoming planar,
eventually depressed, viscid when moist, with a striate margin, inflexed
at first, later curved upward and undulant. The flesh is very firm, ochre to old ivory near
the cap skin, elsewhere white. The volva is present as white scales, most common
over the center.
The gills are free, crowded, whitish,
straight, oblong-subventricose, with edge that is fimbriate to cottony. Short
gills are present.
The stem is 50 - 150 × 7 - 22 (-30) mm,
yellowish white, pruinose to squamulose, finely groovedy longitudinally. The bulb is
proportionately rather large in young material, bearing many fine hyphal filaments on its
bottom. The flesh is white and ranges from solid to hollow. The ring is
membranous, white, hangs like a skirt, and is very fragile. The volva is present as a
ring of small warts around the base of the stem just above the bulb or as
a free limb. The volva is white.
The odor is described as like potato
peelings. The taste is described as insipid. Lazo says that it is DEADLY
POISONOUS. It has been reported that an ouabain-like compound is found in this
species, and this chemical has been proposed as the cause of death from ingestion of A. toxica.
The spores measure (8.0-) 8.5 - 11.6 (13.5)
× (6.6-) 7.0 - 9.5 (-10.0) µm and subglobose to broadly ellipsoid,
infrequently ellipsoid and are inamyloid. Clamps are present at bases of basidia.
A. toxica is present as solitary or
rarely in small groups in association with plantations of Monterrey Pine (Pinus radiata) and,
presumably, with Nothofagus. It is known from Chile.
Lazo and others originally treated this
species in Amanita gemmata (Fr.)
Bertillon in Dechambre. However, this is not
possible because A. gemmata lacks clamps at bases of basidia or has
very few of them. Also, A. gemmata has dominantly ellipsoid spores.
Moreover, no other species assigned to section Amanita is known to
be deadly poisonous except for cases of ingestion of large quantities of
material or of accidental aspiration of vomitus during a
coma-like sleep.—R. E. Tulloss and E. Horak
Lazo "ex" Garrido & Bresinsky nom. inval. in Bresinsky & Besl. 1985. Giftpilze. (Stuttgart): 110.
[Lacking full and direct reference to basionym. Taxon remains untypified. ICBN §33.2, §37.1]
"Lazo's Deadly Amanita"
≡Amanita gemmata var. toxica Lazo nom. inval.1982. Bol. Inst. Salud Publica Chile 23(1-2): 123. [No type designated. ICBN §37.1]
The editors of this site owe a great debt to Dr. Cornelis Bas
whose famous cigar box files of Amanita nomenclatural information
gathered over three or more decades were made available to RET for computerization
and make up the lion's share of the nomenclatural information presented on this site.
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The field may contain magenta text presenting data from a type study
and/or revision of other original material cited in the protolog of the present taxon.
Macroscopic descriptions in magenta are a combination of data from the protolog and
additional observations made on the exiccata during revision of the cited original
The same field may also contain black text, which is data from a revision of the present
taxon (including non-type material and/or material not cited in the protolog).
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this text is appropriate.
Olive text indicates a specimen that has not been
thoroughly examined (for example, for microscopic details) and marks other places in the text
where data is missing or uncertain.
The macroscopic description is pieced together from diverse sources; microscopic data is from original research of R. E. Tulloss.
50–80 mm wide, yellowish cream (old ivory), beige over disc, hemispheric at first, becoming planar, eventually depressed, viscid when moist; context near pileipellis ocher to old ivory, elsewhere white, very firm; margin inflexed at first, later curved upward and undulant, striate; universal veil as white scales or patches, most common over disc.
free, crowded, straight, whitish, oblong-subventricose, with edge fimbriate to cottony; lamellulae present.
50–150 × 7–22 (–30) mm, yellowish white, pruinose, squamulose, finely striatulate; bulb proportionately rather large, bearing many fine hyphal filaments on its bottom; context white, solid or hollow; partial veil membranous, white, pendent, very fragile; universal veil as ring of small warts around base of stipe just above bulb (but called “collar of phalloides type” in protolog, inconsistent with accompanying illustration), white.
Odor like potato peelings; taste insipid. DEADLY POISON (Lazo 1982).
Formaldehyde - negative; AgNO3 - Clay-dun on pileipellis, context, lamellae, and stipe; KOH - clay-dun on pileipellis, context, lamellae, and stipe; FeSO4 - pale blue on context and surface of lamellae and stipe.
Saez et al. (1981) reported finding an ouabain-like compound and proposed it to be a possible cause of deaths from ingestion of A. toxica.
25–30?? µm thick, not or barely gelatinizing at interface to universal veil, with gelatinization zone 20±?? µm thick apparently restricted to basal tissue of universal veil, with partially gelatinized or barely gelatinized hyphae still visible in gelatinized zone connecting pileipellis and universal veil after basidiome maturity; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae ?? µm wide, ??; vascular hyphae ?? µm wide, ??.
wst-near = ?? µm; wst-far = ?? µm; ??; comprising interwoven and frequently branching short uninflated hyphal segements, with basidia arising from such segements.
40–48 (–56) × 6.0–10.4 µm, 4- and 2-sterigmate, with sterigmata up to ?? × ?? µm; clamps observed.
[60/2/1] (8.0–) 8.5–11.6 (–13.5) × (6.6–) 7.0–9.5 (–10.0) µm, (L = 9.4–10.1 µm; L' = 9.7 µm; W = 7.7–8.4 µm; W' = 8.0 µm; Q = (1.09–) 1.12–1.32 (–1.69); Q = 1.21; Q' = 1.21), hyaline, colorless, thin-walled, smooth, inamyloid, metachromatic in Cresyl Blue???, “acinófilas,” adaxially flattened, subglobose to broadly ellipsoid, infrequently ellipsoid; apiculus sublateral, cylindric, often quite prominent; contents dominantly monoguttulate with additional small granules; white in deposit.
Solitary or rarely in small groups. Chile: In plantations of Pinus radiata or in humus under Pinus radiata [La Union] or in native forest (Garrido et al. 1982, Garrido 1986) or from humus under Nothofagus dombeyi and Myrceugenia obtusa.
CHILE: BÍO BÍO—Concepcion, Laguna San Pedro, 5.ix.1976 Oehrens ZT 76-245 (ZT, in herb. Horak); Monte Aguila, 18.iv.1979 N. Garrido 152 (CONC), 27.vi.1979 N. Garrido 67 (CONC), 24.vii.1979 N. Garrido 119 (CONC).
LOS LAGOS—La Unión, Tres Tambores, 17.vii.1990 ?? AH 13945. Valdivia, Cufeo, 14.iv.1980 N. Garrido 221 (CONC); Valdivia, Rebellín, 15.v.1990 ?? AH 13946.
UNKN. REG.—Fundo las Palmas, 22.iv.1982 N. Garrido 410 (CONC).
UNKN. REG.—Chaimávida, 4.vii.1979 N. Garrido 83 (CONC), 30.viii.1979 N. Garrido 166 (CONC).
The presence of clamps at the bases of basidia excludes the present entity from the gemmatoid and pantherinoid groups in Amanita section Amanita.
—R. E. Tulloss
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"Lazo's Deadly Amanita"
1. Amanita toxica
RET - (1) image of dried material collected by Dr. E. Horak in Chile.
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