This description is based on Dr. Bas' thesis on section Lepidella
The cap of A. strobilacea is 70 - 100 mm wide, convex, probably
white or pale yellow, dry, with a nonsulcate,
appendiculate margin. The cap is completely covered with
concolorous, large, rounded-conical, firm, adnate warts,
with slight radially fibrillose structure at their sides
and a small, flat, slightly darker patch on their
subtruncate tips; warts are broader and lower towards the margin.
The gills are subdistant, free, and rather narrow.
The stem is about 100 × 25 mm, probably whitish or yellowish, solid, with a narrow
(?), membranous, subapical ring and no or scarcely any remnants of volva near the margin of the bulb.
The spores measure (7.5-) 8 - 10 × 6.5 - 9 µm and are amyloid and globose to
broadly ellipsoid. Clamps are present at bases of basidia.
Bas placed this species in his stirps Ravenelii. It is the opinion of Reid (1980) that A. strobilacea may be a synonym of A. effusa (Kalchbr.) D.A. Reid. If this is the case, then the correct name of the species is A. effusa. Reid interprets A. strobilacea as lemon yellow. This suggests the possibility that the name is based on a specimen of A. effusa that suffers from the "yellowing syndrome." see A. subsolitaria (Murrill) Murrill.—R. E. Tulloss
The editors of this site owe a great debt to Dr. Cornelis Bas
whose famous cigar box files of Amanita nomenclatural information
gathered over three or more decades were made available to RET for computerization
and make up the lion's share of the nomenclatural information presented on this site.
The following text may make multiple use of each data field.
The field may contain magenta text presenting data from a type study
and/or revision of other original material cited in the protolog of the present taxon.
Macroscopic descriptions in magenta are a combination of data from the protolog and
additional observations made on the exiccata during revision of the cited original
The same field may also contain black text, which is data from a revision of the present
taxon (including non-type material and/or material not cited in the protolog).
Paragraphs of black text will be labeled if further subdivision of
this text is appropriate.
Olive text indicates a specimen that has not been
thoroughly examined (for example, for microscopic details) and marks other places in the text
where data is missing or uncertain.
The following material is derived from the protolog of the present taxon and the work of Bas (1969).
from type study of Bas (1969): Basidiome: medium to large.
from type study of Bas (1969): 70 - 100 mm wide, "probably white or pale yellow," convex, dry; context not described; margin non-sulcate, appendiculate; universal veil as complete covering of rounded conical warts, (in exsiccata, 3 - 8 mm wide and 3 - 4 mm high) firm, adnate, with slightly radially fibrillose structure on sides and small, slightly darker, flat patch on subtruncate tips.
from type study of Bas (1969): free, subdistant, color unknown, rather narrow.
from type study of Bas (1969): ca. 100 × 25 mm, "probably whitish or yellowish"; bulb ca. 60 × 40 mm, napiform, strongly marginate; context solid; partial veil membranous, narrow(?), subapical; universal veil absent or scarce near bulb margin.
from type study of Bas (1969): "difficult to locate," sometimes (possibly) as "somewhat glassy, thin layer between volva and [context} of cap..., consisting of same type of hyphae as in lower part of ...[warts], viz. branching, interwoven hyphae with yellow contents, but more crowded and not, or hardly, gelatinized." [Note: It seems that the tissue described could as well be described as part of the universal veil. A non-gelatinizing interface may well explain the fact that the warts are adnate in this species. For comparison see the description of Amanita magniverrucata, in which somewhat similar anatomy is interpreted as a transition between universal veil and pileus context without development of a true pileipellis.—ed.]
from type study of Bas (1969): ramose to subcellular(?). [Note: doubt expressed in original text.—ed.]
from type study of Bas (1969): 50 - 70 × 13 - 15 μm, 4-sterigmate; clamps present.
from type study of Bas (1969): On pileus, upper part of remaining warts: inflated cells scattered, small, clavate to ellipsoid, ca. 20 - 50 × 15 - 20 μm, terminal singly or in short chains; vascular hyphae 5 - 10 μm wide, interwoven, branching, with contents yellowish. On pileus, interior and lateral sides of warts: vascular hyphae, rather densely interwoven, branching, 3 - 8 μm wide, with contents yellowish. [Note: The upper parts of the warts are missing in the holotype collection per Bas—what appear to be warts are actually "knob-like projections" of the pileus context on which sit the bases of warts.—ed.]
from type study of Bas (1969): longitudinally acrophysalidic; vascular hyphae present; clamps present.
from type study of Bas (1969): [10/1/1] (7.5-) 8.0 - 10.0 × 6.5 - 9.0 μm, (Q = 1.0 - 1.40; Q = 1.20), colorless, hyaline, thin-walled, amyloid, globose to subglobose to broadly ellipsoid, "rarely" ellipsoid, often somewhat attenuate toward apiculus; apiculus not described; contents not described; color in deposit not recorded.
from type study of Bas (1969):
AUSTRALIA: VICTORIA—Shire of Moorabool - ca. Bacchus Marsh [E of Ballarat], 1891 D. Best [comm'd. F. von Mueller] (holotype, K).
from type study of Bas (1969):
"The information on the type collection is rather poor. It is not clear whether Cooke knew about the pale lemon color of the cap mentioned in the protolog through field-notes, through drawings by the collector, or deduced it from the color of the dried specimen. As ... mentioned by by Pegler (1965), Cooke apparently measured spores not belonging to the species. The volva has been described by Cooke as being circumscissile but this is most probably not the case; the bulb itself seems to be marginate. Presumably there is a deep groove between the bulb and the primordium of the cap in button stages.... [Here Bas refers to his illustrations of exsiccata of the specimen known as the "White Lady," see below, which illustrate a strongly marginate bulb in a "button" stage specimen (Bas 1969: Fig. 25 upper portion).]."
Bas' discussion of the "White Lady" with regard to A. strobilaceae follows:
"On the same sheet in the Kew herbarium to which the type is fastened, there is another package under the name A. strobilacea marked 'White Lady 1874.' According to a note on the label the fruit-bodies of this collection were pure white. For the rest they have many characters in common with the type of A. strobilacea; especially the button (fig. 125) helps in understanding the structure of volva and bulb as found in the type. There are however, a few facts which prevent me for the moment from considering them to be conspecific: (i) the spores ... are considerably larger ... than those in the type...."
Bas' measurements of spores of the "White Lady" with the editor's estimated range of Q and estimated Q:
[20/1/1] 10 - 12.5 × 8 - 11 μm, (est. Q = 1.14 - 1.25; est. Q = 1.17). In addition, although they are not all aligned in lateral view, we computed Q values for Bas' drawings of spores from the "White Lady" material (Bas' fig. 127) as follows: 1.10 - 1.33.
"(ii) There are much more inflated elements in the upper parts of the warts of the volva (Bas' fig. 126). (iii) In the mature specimen the warts are scattered over a distinctly gelatinized pileipellis."
Bas closes his observations with a discussion of a hypothesis explaining how the holotype might have been environmentally altered from material conspecific with the "White Lady" collection:
"On the other hand it is very well possible that the type specimen of A. strobilacea grew under very dry conditions and for that reason is atypical. The fact that the strongly projecting warts of the type specimen (fig. 124) appear to consist of only a thin cap of tissue belonging to the volva on a knob-like protuberance of the ...[pileus context] underneath makes me think that the specimen may already have become strongly desiccated in the field."
Another (not necessarily mutually exclusive) possibility is that the type specimen suffered from the yellowing syndrome (see A. subsolitaria).
For related discussion [originating in comments of Reid (1980)] of A strobilacea and the "White Lady," the reader may wish to see the technical tab of the A. effusa taxon page.
—R. E. Tulloss
Information to support the viewer in reading the content of "technical" tabs
can be found here.
Each spore data set is intended to comprise a set of measurements from a single specimen made by a single observer;
and explanations prepared for this site talk about specimen-observer pairs associated with each data set.
Combining more data into a single data set is non-optimal because it obscures observer differences
(which may be valuable for instructional purposes, for example) and may obscure instances in which
a single collection inadvertently contains a mixture of taxa.