The following text may make multiple use of each
The field may contain magenta
text presenting data from a type study
and/or revision of other original material cited in
the protolog of the present taxon.
Macroscopic descriptions in magenta are a
combination of data from the protolog and
additional observations made on the exiccata during
revision of the cited original
The same field may also contain black text, which
is data from a revision of the present
taxon (including non-type material and/or material
not cited in the protolog).
Paragraphs of black text will be labeled if further
this text is appropriate.
Olive text indicates a specimen
that has not been
thoroughly examined (for example, for microscopic
details) and marks other places in the text
where data is missing or uncertain.
The following material is
based on notes and photographs of the collector,
molecular studies by Dr. L. V. Kudzma
and other original research of R. E. Tulloss.
Solitary. In damp soil of semi-rainforest or
with Eucalyptus in semi-rainforest.
AUSTRALIA: NEW SOUTH
WALES—Yarrahapinni St. For., N of
Grassy Head [30.978° S/ 153.141° E, 13 m],
Ian Dodd s.n. [mushroomobserver
(RET 603-5, nrITS & nrLSU seq'd.);
Yarrahapinni St. For., N. of
Grassy Head [30.7816° S/ 152.982° E, 94 m],
30.xii.2014 Ian Dodd s.n. [mushroomobserver
(RET 679-5, fragments of nrITS sequenced),
19.ii.2015 Ian Dodd s.n. [mushroomobserver
(RET 699-4, nrITS & nrLSU seq'd.),
28.iii.2015 Ian Dodd s.n. [mushroomobserver
(RET 692-1, nrITS & nrLSU seq'd.).
We had difficulty finding the 5' end of nrLSU in
RET 692-1, but we were able to see the motif and
some of its context in the fragments of nrITS we
found in data from RET 679-5. The 5' motif in this
species is the 5'-TCTGACCTCAAATCA variant. Taxa
found to have this variant are listed at the end
of the discussion on the technical tab of the taxon
page for A.
penetratrix. The present bright
yellow-capped species is one of only two known
to date in the larger grouping of taxa with
above-stated nrLSU 5' motif
that have pileus pigmentation not limited to the
white-gray-brown range. The other
yellow-capped taxon with the unusual nrLSU 5' motif
williamsiae, which is found in the Atlantic
Coastal plain of the U.S.A. from Long Island, New
York to South Carolina.
—R. E. Tulloss and L. V. Kudzma
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Tulloss & Kudzma
1. Amanita sp-AUS08, Yarrahapinni St. For., NSW, Australia. (RET 679-5)
2. Amanita sp-AUS08, Yarrahapinni St. For., NSW, Australia. (RET 692-1)
3. Amanita sp-AUS08, Yarrahapinni St. For., NSW, Australia. (RET 679-5)
4. Amanita sp-AUS08, Yarrahapinni St. For., NSW, Australia. (RET 692-1)
Ian Dodd - (1-5) Yarrahapinni State Forest, New South
Wales, Australia. (young, RET 679-5;
mature (RET 692-1))
[Note: Original, unedited images are available on
Spore data for collections provisionally identified as: Amanita sp-AUS08 Tulloss & Kudzma
Each spore data set is intended to comprise a set of measurements from a single specimen made by a single observer;
and explanations prepared for this site talk about specimen-observer pairs associated with each data set.
Combining more data into a single data set is non-optimal because it obscures observer differences
(which may be valuable for instructional purposes, for example) and may obscure instances in which
a single collection inadvertently contains a mixture of taxa.