1. Amanita savannae, holotype, from wet savannah, Colombia.
Information on this page is based entirely on the protolog.
The cap of A. savannae is 12–30 mm wide, white to grayish brown, and convex to planar to concave. The flesh of the cap is white, unchanging when cut or bruised, and 2+ mm thick over the stem. The cap margin is nonstriate, appendiculate, decurved to inflexed at first, eventually flaring upward, and entire. Volval remains on the cap are in the form of fine, brown squamules and are densest in the center.
The gills of this species are free, srather close, white, unchanging when cut or bruised, ventricose, not marginate, and 2± mm broad. The short gills are attenuate and of at least two lengths.
The stem is 13–30 (including bulb) × 4–7 mm, pallid, narrowing upward or downward or nearly cylindric, smooth and glabrous toward the apex, and covered with rather fine and pallid fibrillose scales below annulus. The stem's basal bulb is close to turnip-shaped. The flesh of the stem is white, unchanging when cut or bruised, and solid. The stem bears a ring that is white, membranous, placed at mid-stem or lower, and sometimes left in part on cap margin or covering the outer portion of gills. Volval remnants are distributed on the lower stem as scales (see above) and in a broken ring of pallid tissue around the top of the bulb.
The odor of this species is mild; the taste is not recorded.
The spores measure (6.5–) 7.2–10.8 (–13.5) × (6.0–) 6.2–8.5 (–9.5) μm and are subglobose to ellipsoid (rarely globose, rarely elongate) and amyloid. Clamps are "rather plentiful" at bases of basidia.
The type collection of this species is the only collection known. It was made in Prov. El Meta, Colombia. In that collection, fruiting bodies were subgregarious to gregarious. The collection was made 120 m elev. in wet savanna apparently without nearby woody plants and recently flooded by heavy rains.
For purposes of comparison we suggest the reader look at the taxon pages for these amanitas of subsect. Vittadiniae that we believe are the most similar species: A. codinae, A. grallipes, and A. pleropus.—R. E. Tulloss & A. E. Franco-Molano
Tulloss & Franco-Mol. 2008. Mycotaxon 105: 317-323, figs. 1-1 (sic) [two figures with same number].
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NY; isotypes, COL and RET 086-2
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and/or revision of other original material cited in the protolog of the present taxon.
Macroscopic descriptions in magenta are a combination of data from the protolog and
additional observations made on the exiccata during revision of the cited original
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taxon (including non-type material and/or material not cited in the protolog).
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Olive text indicates a specimen that has not been
thoroughly examined (for example, for microscopic details) and marks other places in the text
where data is missing or uncertain.
The following text is derived from the protolog of this species by its authors.
The protolog is available here as a PDF (Tulloss and Franco-Molano 2008) (open).
from protolog: 12–30 mm wide, white to grayish brown (6B2), convex to planar to concave; context white, unchanging when cut or bruised, 2+ mm thick at stipe; margin nonstriate, appendiculate, decurved to inflexed at first, eventually flaring upward, entire; universal veil as fine squamules, densest over disk, brown (6E5).
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from protolog: free, subclose, white, unchanging when cut or bruised, ventricose, not marginate, 2± mm broad; lamellulae attenuate, of at least two lengths.
from protolog: 13–30 (including bulb) × 4–7 mm, pallid, narrowing upward or downward or subcylindric, smooth and glabrous toward the apex, covered with rather fine and pallid fibrillose scales below annulus; bulb subnapiform; context white, unchanging when cut or bruised, solid; partial veil white, membranous, median to inferior, sometimes left in part on pileus margin or covering the outer portion of lamellae; universal veil distributed on the lower stipe as scales (see above) and in broken ring of pallid tissue around apex of bulb.
from protolog: Odor mild. Taste not recorded.
from protolog: Spot test for tyrosinase (paracresol) - positive throughout basidiome after 30 min. Spot test for laccase (syringaldazine) - negative throughout basidiome. Test voucher: Franco-Molano 850.
from protolog: lacking; pileus context intergrading with universal veil through region with elements more closely packed than lower in pileus context.
from protolog: filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 1.2–9.8 µm wide, intergrading with narrow inflated cells, occasionally having intercalary inflated cells similar to the acrophysalides of this tissue, branching, walls thin or slightly thickened as in the acrophysalides; acrophysalides subfusiform to narrowly fusiform to clavate to fusiform-rostrate to narrowly clavate to elongate-ellipsoid, up to 169 × 26 µm, dominating, sometimes branching, with walls thin or thickened (up to 0.8 µm thick), often with subradial orientation; vascular hyphae 3.2–8.0 µm wide, branching, common; clamps observed.
from protolog: bilateral, divergent, with central stratum (wcs = 25–35 µm) appearing dark and quite distinct at low magnification, with angle of divergence from very shallow to nearly perpendicular to the central stratum; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 1.8–6.0 µm wide, branching; terminal, inflated cells not observed; vascular hyphae not observed.
from protolog: as branching structure of short uninflated hyphal segments, with wst-near = 15 µm and wst-far = 45 µm, rather small partially inflated to inflated (e.g., 10 × 8.5 µm) intercalary cells, and irregular (e.g., branched) elements, densely interwoven, with elements approaching bases of basidia at 45–90° angle, with most basidia arising from uninflated hyphal segments, but some (especially in regions that are generally more inflated) arising from small inflated cells.
from protolog: On pileus: extensively gelatinized, more yellow-brown than adjacent pileus context, with elements having periclinal orientation, with most extensively gelatinized regions red-brown and amorphous; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 2.5–6.2 µm wide, branching; inflated cells in chains, dominant, subfusiform to narrowly clavate, up to 53 × 21 µm, all badly damaged in material reviewed; vascular hyphae not distinguished due to extensive gelatinization. On stipe base: (from broken ring at bulb apex) slightly sordid in mass; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 3.0–8.5 µm wide, branching, plentiful; inflated cells in easily dissociated chains, dominant, elongate to cylindric to clavate to ellipsoid, up to 99 × 29 µm, with walls thin to slightly thickened to 0.8 µm thick; vascular hyphae not observed; clamps present.
from protolog: longitudinally acrophysalidic; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 2.2–8.8 µm wide, dominating, branching; acrophysalides subfusiform to clavate, rather slender, up to 158 × 45 µm, with walls thin or slightly thickened; vascular hyphae 5.0–18.5 µm wide, branching; clamps present.
from protolog: upper surface partially gelatinized; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 1.0–6.5 µm wide, branching, dominating, criss-cross interwoven; inflated cells terminal, unevenly distributed, subclavate to subfusiform, up to 114 × 36 µm, with slightly thickened walls; vascular hyphae not observed; clamps present.
lamella edge tissue
1. Amanita savannae, figs. 2a-2f from original description.
from protolog: [140/7/1] (6.5–) 7.2–10.8 (–13.5) × (6.0–) 6.2–8.5 (–9.5) µm, (L = 7.6–9.2 (–10.2) µm; L’ = 8.6 µm; W = 6.6–7.6 (–8.2) µm; W’ = 7.2 µm; Q = (1.02–) 1.08–1.36 (–1.73); Q = 1.14–1.22 (–1.27); Q’ = 1.19), hyaline, smooth, thin-walled, amyloid to somewhat palely amyloid, subglobose to broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid, occasionally globose, occasionally elongate, often not adaxially flattened; apiculus sublateral, proportionately small to very small, cylindric; contents multiguttulate; color in deposit unknown.
from protolog: Subgregarious to gregarious. At 120 m elev. In wet savanna apparently without nearby woody plants and recently flooded by heavy rains.
from protolog: COLOMBIA: EL META—Mpio. Puerto Gaitan - Puente Arimena, sobre la carretera a Carimagua, 18.v.1992 A. E. Franco-M. 850 (holotype, NY; isotype, COL; isotype, HUA; isotype, RET 086-2).
from protolog: This taxon is easily keyed to Amanita stirps Vittadinii using the keys of Bas (1969). The species most similar to A. savannae that is treated by Bas (1969) is A. codinae (Maire) Bertault (1955), described from the Mediterranean region. However, A. codinae has a rather thickset habit (pileus up to 130 mm wide) with a roughly cylindric stipe (up to 80 mm long) that lacks both a bulb and a point at the bottom; and it has much larger spores than does A. savannae with Q between 1.45 and 1.60.
Described from the State of Paraná, southern Brazil, Amanita grallipes Bas & de Meijer (1993) differs in being larger (pileus up to 90 mm wide; stipe up to 120 mm long) with downward tapering stipe lacking a bulb, lamellae becoming golden yellow (4A6) in age, and smaller spores with higher Q value.
Among the remaining taxa of subsect. Vittadiniae described since the publication of (Bas 1969), the only other taxon with which A. savannae might be confused is A. pleropus (Kalchbr. & MacOwan) D. A. Reid (1975) described from South Africa (Reid & Eicker 1991, 1996). However, there are marked differences between the two species. Amanita pleropus has a universal veil with elements having anticlinal orientation. As a result the universal veil remnants on the pileus sometimes become "densely crowded, erect, hair-like spines or pyramidal warts." The African species also has larger spores (10.8–14.0 × 7.0–9.5 µm) with Q in the range of 1.5±.
Dextrinoid (or possibly dextrinoid) contents of basidia or spores is a character reported for two other species in Amanita sect. Lepidella—A. mutabilis Beardslee (Bas 1969, Tulloss 1984), belonging to subsect. Limbatulae Bas and A. westii (Murrill) Murrill (Bas 1969, Tulloss and Lewis 1994), belonging to subsect. Solitariae Bas. This paper provides the first report of dextrinoid granules in Amanita subsect. Vittadiniae. These granules apparently occur rarely outside of Amanita subgen. Lepidella (E.-J. Gilbert) Beauseign. emend. Corner & Bas; they have been noted by Tulloss (unpub. data) in A. umbrinolutea var. flaccida D. A. Reid (1987) of Amanita sect. Vaginataesensu Yang (1997) and others. Such granules were considered of taxonomic importance in the case of A. mutabilis; however, whether or not they are genetically determined is an open issue.
The protolog is available here as a PDF (Tulloss and Franco-Molano 2008) (open).—R. E. Tulloss and A. E. Franco-Molano
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1. Amanita savannae, holotype, from wet savannah, Colombia.
1. Amanita savannae, figs. 2a-2f from original description.
Richard Rauh - (1) pencil sketch of reconstruction from exsiccatum (ed. RET), wet savannah, Colombia.
Each spore data set is intended to comprise a set of measurements from a single specimen made by a single observer;
and explanations prepared for this site talk about specimen-observer pairs associated with each data set.
Combining more data into a single data set is non-optimal because it obscures observer differences
(which may be valuable for instructional purposes, for example) and may obscure instances in which
a single collection inadvertently contains a mixture of taxa.