3. Amanita radiata, very thin and fragile veil, Ocala Nat. For., Marion Co., Florida, U.S.A. (RET 548-1).
4. Amanita radiata, attenuate lamellulae of diverse lengths, Ocala Nat. For., Marion Co., Florida, U.S.A. (RET 548-1).
The following description is based on Jenkins (1984).
The cap of Amanita radiata is up to 70 mm wide, plano-convex to planar, brown slightly striate margin.
The volval remnants are present as moderately thick, whitish, floccose-membranous patches in the center. The flesh
is white, 7 mm thick over the stem.
The gills are adnexed, moderately crowded, narrow, white; the short gills are moderately abundant and attenuate.
The stem is 45 - 60 × 10 -13 mm, tapering upward, slightly expanded at the top, solid, fibrillose to
fibrillose-scaly, whitish with brownish fibers, with a very slight floccose-membranous rim on the bulb,
breaking into patches. The ring is apical, easily lost, white. The basal bulb is oval, 40 × 25 mm wide.
This species has no odor or taste.
The spores measure 8.6 - 10.2 × 3.9 - 5.5 µm and are elongate to cylindric and amyloid. Clamps are absent
at bases of basidia.
Originally described from Alabama, USA under Loblolly Pine.
In his discussion of this species, Jenkins (1984)
says that he had difficulty placing it to section in the genus Amanita
because the pigmented cap is reminiscent of caps in section Validae
whereas the narrow spores and easily lost ring are characters he
associated with section Lepidella. Amanita media
Dav. T. Jenkins is another species which he found difficult to place for the same
reasons. Based on recent molecular studies, it appears that section Validae
has ancestors that fall outside section Lepidella in the current
taxonomic scheme of Amanita. This suggests that any group of
ancestors of a species in section Validae will probably include
ancestors in Lepidella but must include younger ancestors that we
would recognize today as belonging in a different section. As molecular
studies advance, this view may change; however, at the moment, perhaps
it is wise to seek further with regard to arguments for sectional
placements for so-called "borderline" species. For example, in
the present case the fact that the subhymenium is not cellular in A.
radiata could argue against placement in section Validae.
When I had trouble deciding on placement of A.
salmonescens Tulloss, Dr. Bas advised me that the cellular hymenium could be a
factor supporting placement in section Validae. Obviously, further
work on the three taxa named in these notes is necessary.—R. E. Tulloss
in herb. David T. Jenkins, Univ. Alabama, Birmingham
The following text may make multiple use of each data field.
The field may contain magenta text presenting data from a type study
and/or revision of other original material cited in the protolog of the present taxon.
Macroscopic descriptions in magenta are a combination of data from the protolog and
additional observations made on the exiccata during revision of the cited original
The same field may also contain black text, which is data from a revision of the present
taxon (including non-type material and/or material not cited in the protolog).
Paragraphs of black text will be labeled if further subdivision of
this text is appropriate.
Olive text indicates a specimen that has not been
thoroughly examined (for example, for microscopic details) and marks other places in the text
where data is missing or uncertain.
The following is based on the protolog of the present species and on original research of R. E. Tulloss.
Basidiome medium sized.
from protolog: up to 70 mm wide, brown to yellowish brown, with pigment appearing to be in imbedded radial fibrils, plano-convex to planar, smooth, shiny; context up to 7 mm thick over stipe, white; margin nonappendiculate, short-striate, very slightly incurved, with no sterile margin exceeding ends of gills; universal veil as patches over disc, relatively thick, whitish, floccose-membranous .
from protolog: 45 - 60 × 10 - 13 mm, white, with brownish fibrils, narrowing upward, slightly flaring at apex, fibrillose to fibrillose-scaly; bulb 40 × 25 mm, ovoid; context solid; partial veil apical, white, fugacious; universal veil as very slight floccose-membranous rim [on bulb], breaking up into patches.
from protolog: Odor and taste indistinct.
from protolog: distinctly gelatinized near surface; filamentous hyphae 2.0 - 7.0 mm wide, interwoven; vascular hyphae moderately abundant.
from protolog: filamentous hyphae up to 8.0 μm wide, moderately abundant; acrophysalides numerous, elongate, terminal singly or in short chains; vascular hyphae not described.
from protolog: bilateral; filamentous hyphae 2.0 - 7.0 μm wide, moderately branched; inflated cells mostly clavate, up to 230 μm long, terminal singly or in short chains; vascular hyphae not decribed; clamps absent.
RET: bilateral, divergent; ??.
from protolog: inflated ramose to subcellular; filamentous hyphae up to 7.0 μm wide; vascular hyphae not described; clamps absent.
RET: pseudoparenchymatous (cellular); inflated cells ??, in 3 (-4) layers.
from protolog: up to 39 × 4 - 11 μm, 4-sterigmate; clamps absent.
RET: ??; clamps not observed.
from protolog: On pileus: moderately dense tissue; filamentous hyphae up to 8.0 μm wide, abundant, irregularly disposed, moderately branched; inflated cells predominantly globose to broadly ellipsoid (up to 93 × 93 μm), occasionally ellipsoid (up to 109 × 46 μm), terminal, mostly in chains; vascular hyphae sparse; clamps absent. On stipe base: Similar, but inflated cells usually smaller.
from protolog: longitudinally acrophysalidic; filamentous hyphae 3.0 - 7.0 μm wide, sparsely branched, moderately abundant; acrophysaides up to 250 × 18 μm, mostly cylindric, terminal; vascular hyphae not described; clamps absent.
from protolog: filamentous hyphae present; inflated cells dominating variiform; vascular hyphae not described.
from protolog: [-/-/-] 8.6 - 10.2 × 3.9 - 5.5 μm, (Q = 1.71 - 2.20; Q' = 1.93), hyaline, thin-walled, amyloid, elongate to cylindric, adaxially flattened; apiculus sublateral, cylindric; contents guttulate; white in deposit.
RET: [20/1/1] (7.7-) 8.2 - 11.7 (-12.4) × (4.2-) 4.5 - 5.7 (-6.0) μm, (L = 9.2 μm; W = 4.9 μm; Q = (1.71-) 1.76 - 2.13 (-2.18); Q = 1.90), hyaline, colorless, smooth, thin-walled, amyloid, elongate to cyindric, sometimes expanded at one end, adaxially flattened; apiculus sublateral, cylindric; contents mono- or multiguttulate, often with additional small granules; white in deposit.
from protolog: Alabama:
Solitary. Under Pinus taeda (Loblolly
Pine) and Quercus.
RET: Florida: Gregarious, in partial "fairy
ring." Under Quercus laurifolia.
New York: In sandy soil of Pinus-Quercus
ALABAMA—Covington Co. - btwn. Florala and
Opp, U.S. Hwy. 331 rest area, 11.vi.1981 Jeannie and
David Jenkins 1642 (holotype, in herb. Dav. T.
Jenkins, Univ. Alabama, Birmingham). Shelby
Co. - Oak Mtn. St. Pk., NE of Pelham, 9.vii.1982
David T. Jenkins 1736 (paratype, in herb. Dav. T.
Jenkins, Univ. Alabama, Birmingham).
from protolog [excerpt]:
"Amanita radiata is
characterized by a brownish to yellowish brown
pileus which has distinct, innate,
whitish floccose membranous volval patches,
stipe with brownish fibrils, and elongate to
cylindric spores. This combination of
features makes A. radiata
RET: In the southeastern U.S., there are three
taxa that are rarely knowingly collected and share
spores of very similar size and shape: the present
neoneglecta, and A. media. Of the three
species, only the present one has a striate margin
of the pileus (very unusual in section
Validae except in older or drying specimens)
and a virgate pileus. Justin Brosey's
photographs illustrate these characters in young
specimens. Older specimens seem to have
bruised brownish (obscuring the virgation) or been
sunburned to the same effect.
The phrase "fence sitting" in the proposed English
name of the present species relates to Jenkins'
concern over placement of this species: Should it
be placed in sect. Validae or sect.
Lepidella? The nonappendiculate
margin appears to be sufficient to decide on the
From the collections available to us, both
nrITS and nrLSU sequences have been derived.
When these sequences are BLASTed against GenBank
data, the most similar sequences in both cases
come from apparently early divergingspecies of
Similar results are obtained from the local
sequence database in the Roosevelt lab.
As samples accumulate that can be attributed to this
species or A.
media, it begins to seem more
probable that the two names were unintentionally
proposed for color variants of a single
organism. If this is the case,
A. media has priority and would be the name
to be used.
—R. E. Tulloss
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Dav. T. Jenkins
"Brown Fence-Sitting Amanita"
1. Amanita radiata, virgate cap with striate margin, Ocala Nat. For., Marion Co., Florida, U.S.A. (RET 548-1).
Each spore data set is intended to comprise a set of measurements from a single specimen made by a single observer;
and explanations prepared for this site talk about specimen-observer pairs associated with each data set.
Combining more data into a single data set is non-optimal because it obscures observer differences
(which may be valuable for instructional purposes, for example) and may obscure instances in which
a single collection inadvertently contains a mixture of taxa.