1. Amanita pseudocrocea nom. prov., San Francisco de Temezontla, Tlaxcala edo., Mexico.
The following is based on original research of R. E. Tulloss.
The cap of A. pseudocrocea is 42 - 82 mm wide, pale brownish orange to orange or peach-orange (near 5A4) with darker disc or orange-tan and then paler at margin, sometimes becoming bleached to tannish over disc (similar to the change in A. cochiseana), subglobose to thimble-shaped at first with incurved margin, sometimes becoming broadly campanulate, later planoconvex, umbonate, tacky, and dull. The underside of the cap (between the gills) may become pale orange on drying. The cap's flesh is white except for a thin orange brown layer below the cap's skin. The flesh is unchanging when cut or bruised and 2 - 6 mm thick above the stem. The cap's margin is striate for 15% to 20% of the cap's radius, deeply grooved, and not appendiculate. There may be no volval remnants on the cap; or volval remnants may appear as a single patch covering much of the cap's center. In the latter case, the remnants are white or whitish, membranous, easily removed, irregular, and smooth; such remnants have a fibrillose-matted surface, and sometimes show some slight rusty brown bruising or staining. The patch sometimes represents more than half of the original volva.
The gills of this species are free, without a decurrent line on the stem, subdistant to close to crowded, off-white to pale cream to cream to yellowish cream to pale orangish cream in mass, off-white to pale off-white to very pale cream in side view, and drying to a pale sordid yellow or pinkish orange. The gills bear a fine white flocculence on their edges that may brown in age or on drying or after injury. The gills show some forking and are 3 - 6.5 mm broad. The short gills are truncate, rather uncommon, and sometimes one finds a series of ten or more adjacent gills with no intervening short gills. The short gills are of diverse lengths.
The stem is 38 - 146 × 7.5 - 17 mm, pallid, yellowish white or white below and very pale orangish white on upper ?? to upper two-thirds, sometimes slightly browning from handling, sometimes with dark brown fibrils, narrowing upward, and flaring (sometimes barely) at the very top of the stem. The orangish white region is often pulverulent at first or even has a well-defined flocculose-pulverulent sheath at first; sometimes this sheath has a distinct lower edge that becomes orange-brown or has a web-like arrangement of fibrils connecting the cap's margin to the sheath. With age the stem's upper surface becomes finely punctate near the top or (if a sheath was present) the sheath cracks roughly horizontally and breaks up into scales. Eventually, the stem is finely longitudinally striatulate below with some small raised fibrils. The ringless stem's flesh is white, unchanging when cut or bruised, although occasionally brown in larva tunnels, and is hollow or stuffed at first&nbp; The volva is saccate with up to 5 lobes, white at first, soon getting rusty or light brownish stains or spots where exposed, soft, smooth, membranous, leathery, rather tough, 17 - 37 × 10 - 23 mm, flaring at first, then becoming appressed to the stem, and moderately easily broken into large fragments during expansion of the fruiting body. The volva's internal limb is rather smalland apparently set rather low on the inner surface of the main volval limb—probably between the point of attachment to the stem to about one fifth the distance up the free part of the main limb.
The odor of this species is reported as faintly fungoid or indistinct or pleasant. The taste has not been recorded.
The spores of this species measure (7.8-) 8.6 - 10.8 (-21) × (6.4-) 7.2 - 9.5 (-17.8) µm and are subglobose to broadly ellipsoid (rarely globose or ellipsoid) and inamyloid. There are no clamps at the bases of basidia.
The currently known range of this species extends from Ohio and Kentucky, U.S.A. to the neovolcanic zone of central Mexico. It occurs in oak (Quercus) dominated deciduous forest as well as in mixed forest including oak and pine (Pinus).
Amanita pseudocrocea is one of two or more North American taxa that are sometimes incorrectly determined as one of the European species of Amanita stirps Crocea. Another North American taxon that the reader may wish to compare with the present taxon is A. americrocea Tulloss nom. prov..—R. E. Tulloss
Tulloss nom. prov.
"Eastern American Saffron Ringless Amanita"
Due to delays in data processing at GenBank, some accession numbers may lead to unreleased (pending) pages.
These pages will eventually be made live, so try again later.
Olive text indicates a specimen that has not been
thoroughly examined (for example, for microscopic details) and marks other places in the text
where data is missing or uncertain.
The following material is based upon molecular
research of Dr. Linas Kudzma and other original
research by R. E. Tulloss.
42 - 82 mm wide, pale brownish orange (more like A. velosa than like A. fulva) [7.5YR 7/6 (roughly equal to 6B3)] to orange (6A5) or peach-orange (near 5A4) with darker disc or orange-tan (5YR 6/8) and then paler at margin, sometimes becoming bleached to tannish over disc (similar to the change in A. cochiseana), subglobose to thimble-shaped at first with incurved margin, sometimes becoming broadly campanulate, later planoconvex, umbonate, tacky, dull; context white except for orange brown under pileipellis, with watersoaked line above stipe, underside (between lamellulae) becoming pale orange on drying, unchanging when cut or bruised, 2 - 6 mm thick at stipe, thinning evenly to a point about 2 - 5 mm from margin, then membranous to margin; margin striate (0.15 - 0.2R), deeply grooved, nonappendiculate; universal veil absent or as single patch covering much of disc, white or whitish, membranous, detersile, irregular, smooth, sometimes representing more than half of universal veil, with fibrillose-matted surface, sometimes showing some slight rusty brown bruising or staining.
free, without decurrent line on stipe, subdistant to
close to crowded, off-white to pale cream to cream to
yellowish cream to pale orangish cream in mass,
off-white to pale off-white to very pale cream in
side view, drying to a pale sordid yellow or pinkish
orange (5A4), with fine white flocculence on the
edges that browns in age or on drying or after injury, 3 - 6.5 mm
broad, sometimes forking, with some edges eroded
slightly; lamellulae truncate, rather
uncommon, sometimes with ten or more adjacent
lamellae having no intervening lamellulae, of
38 - 146 × 7.5 - 17 mm, pallid, 5A2-3 or white below and very pale orangish white on up to upper two-thirds, sometimes slightly browning from handling, sometimes with dark brown fibrils, narrowing upward, flaring (sometimes barely) at apex, with orangish white region pulverulent or even as well-defined flocculose-pulverulent sheath at first (then striate from contact with lamellae), sometimes with distinct lower edge becoming orange-brown, sometimes with cortina-like arrangement of fibrils connecting pileus margin to sheath, later surface finely punctate near apex or with sheath cracking roughly horizontally and breaking up into scales, eventually finely longitudinally striatulate below with some small raised fibrils; context white, unchanging when cut or bruised, occasionally brown in larva tunnels, stuffed or hollow at first, eventually hollow and lined with longitudinally oriented densely packed white fibrils or stuffed just in base with white cottony material, having central cylinder 3 - 10 mm wide; exannulate; universal veil as saccate volva with up to 5 lobes, white at first, soon getting rusty or light brownish stains or spots where exposed, soft, smooth, membranous, leathery, rather tough, 17 - 37 × 10 - 23 mm, less than 1 mm thick at midheight of free limb, flaring at first, then becoming appressed to stipe, moderately easily broken into large fragments during expansion of basidiome, with point of attachment one fifth to two-thirds of limb’s length up from stipe base (depending on portion of volva left on pileus), with limbus internus rather small, apparently set rather low, probably at point of attachment with stipe to about one fifth of distance up free limb.
Odor faintly fungoid or indistinct or pleasant. Taste not recorded.
Spot test for laccase (syringaldazine) - positive in undifferentiated tissue at stipe base and much of lower half of volva and negative throughout remainder of basidiome in both immature and mature material. Spot test for tyrosinase (paracresol) - rapidly positive throughout most of pileus and stipe context (less than 1 min.) and positive throughout basidiome in 5 - 10 min. in both immature and mature material. Test voucher: Tulloss 7-17-96-B.
(15-) 20 - 80 µm thick, gelatinizing only at surface, lacking distinct suprapellis, pale yellow-orange near margin to brownish orange over disc and under universal veil patch or entirely yellow-orange, sometimes paler near surface, with addition of brownish tints when seen in mass; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 1.5 - 10.0 µm wide, branching, with those of largest diameter apparently at or near surface, with many subradially arranged, but also with many criss-crossing at diverse angles in moderately open fabric, occasionally with yellowish subrefractive walls (these most common below surface); vascular hyphae, 2.5 - 7.6 µm wide, occasionally branching, occasionally coiling or twisting, scattered to relatively common locally, not present in all mounts.
bilateral; wcs = ??; subhymenial base containing numerous rather large crowded inflated cells [subglobose (e.g., 31 × 27 µm) to ellipsoid (e.g., 34 × 19 µm) to clavate to ventricose]; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae ?? µm wide, ??; divergent, terminal inflated cells ??; vascular hyphae 4.5 - 5.5 µm wide, ??, sinuous.
wst-near = ?? µm; wst-far = ?? µm; rather shallow, subcellular; with basidia arising from ??.
47 - 61 × 9.6 - 13.5 µm, 4-sterigmate, with sterigmata up to ?? × ?? µm; clamps not observed.
On pileus, upper surface: ??. On pileus, interior: ??. On pileus, bottom layer: 10 - 20 µm thick, colorless, similar to pileipellis in cross-section; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae ?? µm wide, ??, densely packed, subgelatinized; vascular hyphae ??. On stipe base, exterior surface: 15 - 35 µm thick; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 1.0 - 7.5 µm wide, branching, partially gelatinized to ungelatinized, lacking dominant orientation, tangled in very open weave, occasionally in rather broad fascicles, with proportionately large gaps through which interior visible; vascular hyphae not observed. On stipe base, interior: filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 2.4 - 12.7 (-15.0) µm wide, branching, interwoven in open lattice structure, often in fascicles, dominating, sometimes constricted at septa, with narrowly clavate intercalary and terminal segments rather common; inflated cells terminal, thin-walled, dominantly broadly clavate to clavate to narrowly clavate to subfusiform, also ellipsoid or broadly elllipsoid or subpyriform, up to 85+ × 53 µm, locally rather common, sometimes in small loose clusters; vascular hyphae 3.7 - 5.1 (-11.4) µm wide, unevenly distributed, scarce to locally moderately common, sinuous. On stipe base, inner surface: reminiscent of pileipellis in cross-section, 15 - 30 µm thick, colorless to faintly orangish or yellowish, gelatinized on surface, otherwise subgelatinized or not gelatinized; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 0.9 - 8.3 µm wide, branching, dominantly sublongitudinally oriented, closely packed; vascular hyphae not observed; inflated cells free in mount gelatinized, numerous, colorless, possibly(?) from friable part of limbus internus or remains of layer of inflated cells from lamella edge on limbus internus surface.
longitudinally acrophysalidic; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 1.9 - 6.4 µm wide, branching, dominating near surface; acrophysalides very slender, up to 343 × 30 µm, with walls 0.5 - 1.0 µm thick, dominating in interior; vascular hyphae not observed.
up to five layers of inflated cells (quickly becoming gelatinized), globose to subglobose to subpyriform (e.g., 26 × 26 µm) or broadly clavate (e.g., 33 × 15 µm), thin-walled, arising from interwoven fascicle of closely packed hyphae (up to 11 or more hyphal diameters thick) running along lamella edge.
[120/5/4] (7.8-) 8.6 - 10.8 (-21) × (6.4-) 7.2 - 9.5
(-17.8) µm, (L = 9.2 - 10.1 µm; L’ =
9.7 µm; W = 7.5 - 9.2 µm; W’ = 8.4 µm;
Q = (1.05-) 1.06 - 1.30 (-1.59); Q = 1.10 -
1.20; Q’ = 1.15), hyaline, colorless, smooth,
thin-walled, inamyloid, globose to subglobose to
broadly ellipsoid, infrequently ellipsoid, often
adaxially flattened, often expanded at one end;
apiculus sublateral, truncate-conic to
cylindric, relatively large, occasionally broad and
short; contents predominantly monoguttulate;
?? in deposit.
Solitary to subgregarious. Tlaxcala: At 2640± m elev. In open, dry, remnant forest of Quercus in thin, rather dry, friable loam and Quercus litter over volcanic tuff. Kentucky: In dark moist loam over limestone caves capped by sandstone, in mixed forest in which Acer sp. and Quercus alba are dominant, with Pinus strobus and Q. stellata. Missouri: In humus of upload Quercus-Carya flatwoods. Ohio: In hardwood forest.
Atemajac de Brizuela - camino a Temajac de Brizuela,
km 4.5 del entronque Atemajac-Juanacatlán
Lagunillas, 14.viii.1995 O. Rodríquez 1204 (IBUG;
RET 276-2, nrITS seq'd.); Mpio. Ciudad Guzmán - Nevado de Colima,
camino de Ciudad Guzmán al Parq. Nac., El
Floripondio, 8.viii.1985 A. Loeza C. 158
(IBUG; RET 276-3, nrITS seq'd.); Mpio.
Tecolotlán - Sierra de Quila, km 16.3 del camino
de Tecolotlán a Quila, 16.vii.1994 M. L. Fierros
323 (IBUG; RET 276-1).
TLAXCALA—Mpio. Panotla - 1 km E of San Francisco Temezontla [19°20’41” N/ 98°16’31” W, 2640 m], 17.vii.1996 A. Montoya Esquivel & R. E. Tulloss 7-17-96-B (RET 252-2; TLXM).
U.S.A.: ARKANSAS—Pulaski Co. - unkn. loc., vii.1988 J. Justice s.n. [Tulloss 7-88-JJ1] (RET 265-3).
KENTUCKY—Laurel Co. - Levi Jackson
Wilderness Trail St. Pk. [37°04’51” N/
356 m], 20.vii.1987 D. C. & R. E.
Tulloss 7-20-87-A (RET 087-6).
Co. - ca. Camdenton, Ha Ha Tonka St. Pk., River
Cave, 24.vi.2009 Jay Justice s.n. [Tulloss
6-24-09-A] (RET 443-8).
OHIO—Preble Co. -
Somers Twp., Swan-Beatty Rd., Pleasant
Vineyard Retreat Ctr., sect. 20,
2.viii.1992 M. A. Vincent 5644
(MU F39176; RET 120-10).
W. W. Patrick 2250 (9.ix.1970, E
side of Cleveland Lk., Onated (sp?) St.
Game Area, Lenawee Co., MI) in
Tulloss 7-27-87-A bore no mature basidia.
Tulloss formerly referred to this taxon as "Amanita sp. W10."
—R. E. Tulloss and L. V. Kudzma
Information to support the viewer in reading the content of "technical" tabs
can be found here.
"Eastern American Saffron Ringless Amanita"
1. Amanita pseudocrocea nom. prov., San Francisco de Temezontla, Tlaxcala edo., Mexico.
RET - (1) San Francisco de Temezontla, Tlaxcala edo., Tlaxcala.
Each spore data set is intended to comprise a set of measurements from a single specimen made by a single observer;
and explanations prepared for this site talk about specimen-observer pairs associated with each data set.
Combining more data into a single data set is non-optimal because it obscures observer differences
(which may be valuable for instructional purposes, for example) and may obscure instances in which
a single collection inadvertently contains a mixture of taxa.