The most remarkable shared characteristics of the
fruiting bodies treated under the present name are
apparent position of the mushroom's origin (far below
the surface of the ground) and the
umbo on their caps. The umbo is very
pronounced, rounded-conic, and very hard—suggesting
the perferatorium on the caps of
some of the large species of Termitomyces in
Africa and Asia.
The color of the cap is variable.
A predominantly white-capped collection of an
amanita apparently belonging to the present taxon
(from Windham Co., Connecticut), has been posted by
Bill Yule on mushroomobserver.org
double click in markup mode to edit.
—R. E. Tulloss
Tulloss & Kudzma
"Connecticut Penetrating Ringless Amanita"
Due to delays in data processing at GenBank, some accession numbers may lead to unreleased (pending) pages.
These pages will eventually be made live, so try again later.
The following text may make multiple use of each data
The field may contain magenta text
presenting data from a type study
and/or revision of other original material cited in the
protolog of the present taxon.
Macroscopic descriptions in magenta are a combination of
data from the protolog and
additional observations made on the exiccata during
revision of the cited original
The same field may also contain black text, which is
data from a revision of the present
taxon (including non-type material and/or material not
cited in the protolog).
Paragraphs of black text will be labeled if further
this text is appropriate.
Olive text indicates a specimen
that has not been
thoroughly examined (for example, for microscopic
details) and marks other places in the text
where data is missing or uncertain.
The following material is based on molecular research
of Dr. L. V. Kudzma and additional original research of
R. E. Tulloss.
67 - 132 mm wide, medium brown to slightly grayish beige
to medium gray-brown to
gray-brown to white, often virgate, sometimes with
inner/outer area of marginal striations paler than the
outer/inner area of striations,
not staining or bruising when damaged, at first
campanulate to conic then concave to planar, tacky,
viscid when wet, with notable pronounced
umbo (e.g.. 5.5 - 14 mm high and 19 - 30 mm wide) often
grayer or browner than surrounding surface especially in
context 3.5 - 10 mm thick over stipe (excluding
umbo), white, unchanging,
extremely dense in umbo (difficult to cut with razor),
thinning evenly for half to three-quarters of
radius, then membranous to margin; margin
tuberculate-striate [0.25-0.45 (-0.6)R],
nonappendiculate; universal veil absent.
free or very narrowly attached to receeding, rarely
with decurrent line on stipe apex, subcrowded to
crowded, off-white to pale cream to cream in mass to
off-white to sordid white to faintly yellowish cream in
not bruising or staining after damage, 4 - 8 mm broad,
broadest at 50 - 60 (-75)% of cap radius; lamellulae
truncate to subtruncate to attenuate (one specimen),
unevenly distributed, of diverse lengths,
156 - 294 × 9.5 - 19 mm, with (70+-)
104 - 153 mm
embedded in substrate, white to pale cream, sometimes
with upper 20± mm having matte
above substrate surface, picking up some coloration from
soil below that surface, cylindric or narrowing
upward, not or slightly flaring at apex, finely
longitudinally striatulate, with some raised
fibrils (more come below ground), faintly zebroid;
context hollow or loosely stuffed, white to
off-white, unchanging, concolorous in insect tunnels,
with central cylinder
(3 - 8 mm wide) lined with white
cottony fibrils, sometimes stuffed loosely with similar
fibrils; exannulate; universal
veil as saccate membranous volva, white
on inner and outer surfaces, 52 - 95
× 14 - 35 mm, at least sometimes including radicating
base (up to 50 × 12 mm), up to 1±
mm thick at mid-height of limb.
Odor not distinctive. Taste
absent or faintly "nutty" (C. Borodenko).
RET: [60/3/3] (8.8-) 9.1 - 12.2 (-14.5) ×
(7.4-) 8.2 - 11.0 (-13.6) μm,
(L = 10.2 - 11.2 μm; L' = 10.6 μm;
W = 9.0 - 10.1 μm; W' = 9.5 μm;
Q = (1.04-) 1.05 - 1.25 (-1.34);
Q = 1.09 - 1.16; Q' = 1.12),
hyaline, colorless, smooth, thin-walled, inamyloid,
subglobose to broadly ellipsoid, infrequently globose,
adaxially flattened, sometimes with giant spores;
apiculus sublateral, cylindric,
prominent; contents guttuluate with additional fine
granules; white in deposit.
Solitary or in pairs.
Connecticut: In rich, dark, loamy, friable soil or in
sandy loam. In mixed
hardwood forest including Quercus and
Fagus or in mixed conifer-hardwood forest or in
second growth, mixed forest with Pinus strobus,
Betula, Fagus and Quercus.
Pennsylvania: in Tsuga
with Betula and some Quercus.
CONNECTICUT—Middlesex Co. - E. Haddam,
14.viii.2018 Bill Yule s.n. [mushroomobserver
(RET 842-7, nrITS & nrLSU seq'd.); E. Haddam,
Devil's Hopyard St. For., 31.vii.2015
NEMF2015 foray participant s.n. [Tulloss 7-31-15-K]
(RET 703-1); Meshomasic St. For., 19.viii.1998 S. E. K.
Tulloss & Michaela Slavid s.n. [R. E.
Tulloss 9-19-98-B] (RET 288-5, nrITS seq'd.),
29.viii.2009, John Wheeler & Noah Rowe s.n.
[8-29-09-A] (RET 437-4, "COMA3B"); ca. Moodus,
29.viii.2009 COMA2009 participant s.n. [Tulloss
8-29-09-B] (RET 438-1, "COMA2" nrITS seq'd.);
Salmon River St. For. (S. sect.), 28.viii.2009
Connie Borodenko s.n. [Tulloss 8-28-09-A]
(RET 437-8, "COMA1" - nrITS seq'd.), Rena Wertzer
s.n. [Tulloss 8-28-09-C, "COMA3A" nrITS & nrLSU seq'd.]
New London Co. - Colchester, Day Pond St. Pk.,
4.ix.2011 COMA2011 participant s.n.
[Tulloss 9-4-11-H] (RET 492-9, nrITS and nrLSU seq'd.),
28.viii.2009 M. Pack s.n. [Tulloss 8-28-09-B] (RET 437-3,
nrITS & nrLSU seq'd.),
31.vii.2015 Clement Ockay s.n. [Tulloss 7-31-15-B]
(RET 704-7, nrITS and nrLSU seq'd.), NEMF2015
[Tulloss 7-31-15-C] (RET 703-10, nrITS & nrLSU seq'd.);
Nehantic State Forest, East Lyme,
31.vii.2015 George Yager s.n. [Tulloss 7-31-15-D]
(RET 704-3); New London, Connecticut College campus,
31.vii.2015 Stephen Russell s.n. [Tulloss
7-31-15-A] (RET 704-1, nrITS and nrLSU seq'd.).
Unkn. Co. - unkn. loc., 31.vii.2015
Luke S. s.n. [Tulloss 7-31-15-J] (RET 704-8).
NORTH CAROLINA—Surry Co. - Franklin
Twp., Lowgap, Cumberland Knob [36.5501º N/ 80.9086º
W, 871 m], 17.vi. 2017 Geoff Balme s.n.
(RET 797-10, nrLSU seq'd.).
Co. - Dogtown [41.1322º N/ 76.1537º W, 403 m],
22.vii.2016 David Wasilewski s.n. [mushroomobserver
(RET 769-1, nrITS & nrLSU seq'd.).
Amanita penetratrix is the first North American
species of section Vaginatae in which RET
encountered such a hard-fleshed umbo
associated with such an apparently deep origin for a
primordium—often 100 or more mm below the substrate
surface. The umbo reminds one of the
of Termitomyces taxa that must break their
of concrete-like termite mounds.
The present species is one of the first in which we
happened to find the unusual nrLSU 5' motif,
TCTGACCTCAAATCA, which occurs in other genera (e.g.,
Limacella), but, in Amanita, seems to be
limited largely to section Vaginatae.
[We have found one apparent exception.]
The more commonly found version of the motif in the
Vaginatae is "TTTGACCTCAAATCA". Species
with this nrLSU 5' motif comprise about 70% of the
sections known members.
Because, as far as we know, we are the first to notice
this phenomenon, we offer a list of taxa with this
A. williamsiae - New York to
South Carolina in Atlantic Coastal Plain, U.S.A.
There are several additional probable taxa
of the Vaginatae that
have the nrLSU 5' "TCTGACCTCAAATCA" motif and are
genetically distinguishable. These entities
are represented by unique collections in the
Roosevelt herbarium that
currently lack a provisional name (or temporary code)
and a determination:
RET 178-6 (Norway)
RET 251-3 (New Mexico, U.S.A.)
RET 366-5 (California, U.S.A.)
RET 427-7 (France)
RET 463-7 (Texas, U.S.A.)
RET 572-7 (Wisconsin, U.S.A.)
RET 628-10 (New Jersey, U.S.A., ?penetrans)
RET 682-2 (Texas, U.S.A.)
TENN 12512 clone 1 (Tennessee?, U.S.A.)
—R. E. Tulloss and L. V. Kudzma
Information to support the viewer in reading the content of "technical" tabs
can be found here.
RET - (1) Devil's Hopyard State Park, Middlesex County,
Connecticut, U.S.A. (RET 703-1)
(2) Connecticut College campus,
New London, New London County, Connecticut,
U.S.A. (RET 704-1)
(3) Day Pond State Park, New London County,
Connecticut, U.S.A. (RET 703-10)
Connie Borodenko - (4-5) Meshomasic State Forest, Middesex
County, Connecticut, U.S.A. (30.viii.2009)
Each spore data set is intended to comprise a set of measurements from a single specimen made by a single observer;
and explanations prepared for this site talk about specimen-observer pairs associated with each data set.
Combining more data into a single data set is non-optimal because it obscures observer differences
(which may be valuable for instructional purposes, for example) and may obscure instances in which
a single collection inadvertently contains a mixture of taxa.