6. Amanita penetratrix, Coventry, Kent Co., Rhode Island, U.S.A. (RET 793-2)
The most remarkable shared characteristics of the
fruiting bodies treated under the present name are
apparent position of the mushroom's origin (far below
the surface of the ground) and the
umbo on their caps. The umbo is very
pronounced, rounded-conic, and very hard—suggesting
the perferatorium on the caps of
some of the large species of Termitomyces in
Africa and Asia.
The color of the cap is variable.
A predominantly white-capped collection of an
amanita apparently belonging to the present taxon
(from Windham Co., Connecticut), has been posted by
Bill Yule on mushroomobserver.org
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The known range of this species extends from Connecticut
and Rhode Island to North Carolina. It is not
unique in having a
very hard umbo and deeply buried origin in the
substrate. Even in North America there are a few
similar species such as A. penetrans and
The present species is the first one in which RET
found the "TCTGACCTCAAATCA" form of the beginning of
the sequence for the nuclear ribosomal Large Subunit
gene (also called the 28S ribosomal gene). This
initial motif for the gene is now known to appear
in about 30% of the species of section
Vaginatae.—R. E. Tulloss
Tulloss & Kudzma
"Connecticut Penetrating Ringless Amanita"
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The field may contain magenta text
presenting data from a type study
and/or revision of other original material cited in the
protolog of the present taxon.
Macroscopic descriptions in magenta are a combination of
data from the protolog and
additional observations made on the exiccata during
revision of the cited original
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data from a revision of the present
taxon (including non-type material and/or material not
cited in the protolog).
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this text is appropriate.
Olive text indicates a specimen
that has not been
thoroughly examined (for example, for microscopic
details) and marks other places in the text
where data is missing or uncertain.
The following material is based on molecular research
of Dr. L. V. Kudzma and additional original research of
R. E. Tulloss.
67 - 132 mm wide, medium brown to slightly grayish beige
to medium gray-brown to
gray-brown to white, often virgate, sometimes with
inner/outer area of marginal striations paler than the
outer/inner area of striations,
not staining or bruising when damaged, at first
campanulate to conic then concave to planar, tacky,
viscid when wet, with notable pronounced
umbo (e.g.. 5.5 - 14 mm high and 19 - 30 mm wide) often
grayer or browner than surrounding surface especially in
context 3.5 - 10 mm thick over stipe (excluding
umbo), white, unchanging,
extremely dense in umbo (difficult to cut with razor),
thinning evenly for half to three-quarters of
radius, then membranous to margin; margin
tuberculate-striate [0.25-0.45 (-0.6)R],
nonappendiculate; universal veil absent.
free or very narrowly attached to receeding, rarely
with decurrent line on stipe apex, subcrowded to
crowded, off-white to pale cream to cream in mass to
off-white to sordid white to faintly yellowish cream in
not bruising or staining after damage, 4 - 8 mm broad,
broadest at 50 - 60 (-75)% of cap radius; lamellulae
truncate to subtruncate to attenuate (one specimen),
unevenly distributed, of diverse lengths,
150 - 294 × 9.5 - 19 mm, with (70+-)
104 - 153 mm
embedded in substrate, white to pale cream, sometimes
with upper 20± mm having matte
above substrate surface, picking up some coloration from
soil below that surface, cylindric or narrowing
upward, not or slightly flaring at apex, finely
longitudinally striatulate, with some raised
fibrils (more come below ground), faintly zebroid;
context hollow or loosely stuffed, white to
off-white, unchanging, concolorous in insect tunnels,
with central cylinder
(3 - 8 mm wide) lined with white
cottony fibrils, sometimes stuffed loosely with similar
fibrils; exannulate; universal
veil as saccate membranous volva, white
on inner and outer surfaces, 52 - 95
× 14 - 35 mm, at least sometimes including radicating
base (up to 50 × 12 mm), up to 1±
mm thick at mid-height of limb.
Odor not distinctive. Taste
absent or faintly "nutty" (C. Borodenko).
RET: [60/3/3] (8.8-) 9.1 - 12.2 (-14.5) ×
(7.4-) 8.2 - 11.0 (-13.6) μm,
(L = 10.2 - 11.2 μm; L' = 10.6 μm;
W = 9.0 - 10.1 μm; W' = 9.5 μm;
Q = (1.04-) 1.05 - 1.25 (-1.34);
Q = 1.09 - 1.16; Q' = 1.12),
hyaline, colorless, smooth, thin-walled, inamyloid,
subglobose to broadly ellipsoid, infrequently globose,
adaxially flattened, sometimes with giant spores;
apiculus sublateral, cylindric,
prominent; contents guttuluate with additional fine
granules; white in deposit.
Solitary or in pairs.
Connecticut: In rich, dark, loamy, friable soil or in
sandy loam. In mixed
hardwood forest including Quercus and
Fagus or in mixed conifer-hardwood forest or in
second growth, mixed forest with Pinus strobus,
Betula, Fagus and Quercus.
Pennsylvania: in Tsuga
with Betula and some Quercus.
CONNECTICUT—Middlesex Co. - E. Haddam,
14.viii.2018 Bill Yule s.n. [mushroomobserver
(RET 842-7, nrITS & nrLSU seq'd.);
Devil's Hopyard St. For. [41.4756° N/ 72.3403° W,
72 m], 31.vii.2015
NEMF2015 foray participant s.n. [Tulloss 7-31-15-K]
(RET 703-1); Meshomasic St. For., 19.viii.1998 S. E. K.
Tulloss & Michaela Slavid s.n. [R. E.
Tulloss 9-19-98-B] (RET 288-5, nrITS seq'd.),
24.viii.2007 Connie Borodenko s.n. [Tulloss
8-24-07-P] (RET 438-7, nrITS-LSU seq'd.), Noel Rowe
s.n. [Tulloss 8-24-07-Q] (RET 438-8, nrITS-LSU seq'd.),
29.viii.2009, John Wheeler & Noah Rowe s.n.
[8-29-09-A] (RET 437-4, "COMA3B"); ca. Moodus,
29.viii.2009 COMA2009 participant s.n. [Tulloss
8-29-09-B] (RET 438-1, "COMA2" nrITS seq'd.);
Salmon River St. For. (S. sect.), 28.viii.2009
Connie Borodenko s.n. [Tulloss 8-28-09-A]
(RET 437-8, "COMA1" - nrITS seq'd.), Rena Wertzer
s.n. [Tulloss 8-28-09-C, "COMA3A" nrITS & nrLSU seq'd.]
New London Co. - Colchester, Day Pond St. Pk.,
24.viii.2007 Rock s.n. [Tulloss 8-24-07-R]
(RET 438-2, nrITS-LSU seq'd.),
28.viii.2009 M. Pack s.n. [Tulloss 8-28-09-B]
(RET 437-3, nrITS & nrLSU seq'd.), 4.ix.2011 COMA2011 participant s.n.
[Tulloss 9-4-11-H] (RET 492-9, nrITS
& nrLSU seq'd.),
31.vii.2015 Clement Ockay s.n. [Tulloss 7-31-15-B]
(RET 704-7, nrITS and nrLSU seq'd.), NEMF2015
[Tulloss 7-31-15-C] (RET 703-10, nrITS &
Nehantic State Forest, East Lyme,
31.vii.2015 George Yager s.n. [Tulloss 7-31-15-D]
(RET 704-3); New London, Connecticut College campus,
31.vii.2015 Stephen Russell s.n. [Tulloss
7-31-15-A] (RET 704-1, nrITS and nrLSU seq'd.).
Unkn. Co. - unkn. loc., 31.vii.2015
Luke S. s.n. [Tulloss 7-31-15-J] (RET 704-8).
NEW JERSEY—Mercer Co. -Washington
Crossing State Park [40.307° N/ 74.864° W, 35m],
17.viii.2013 Igor Safonov s.n. [mushroomobserver
(RET 562-2, nrITS-LSU seq'd.).
NORTH CAROLINA—Surry Co. - Franklin
Twp., Lowgap, Cumberland Knob [36.5501º N/ 80.9086º
W, 871 m], 17.vi. 2017 Geoff Balme s.n.
(RET 797-10, nrLSU seq'd.).
Co. - Dogtown [41.1322º N/ 76.1537º W, 403 m],
22.vii.2016 David Wasilewski s.n. [mushroomobserver
(RET 769-1, nrITS & nrLSU seq'd.).
RHODE ISLAND—Kent Co. - Coventry
[41.6883º N/ 71.5642º W, 86 m], 9.viii.2017 Spike
Mikulski s.n. (RET 793-2, nrITS & nrLSU
Amanita penetratrix is the first North American
species of section Vaginatae in which RET
encountered such a hard-fleshed umbo
associated with such an apparently deep origin for a
primordium—often 100 or more mm below the substrate
surface. The umbo reminds one of the
of Termitomyces taxa that must break their
of concrete-like termite mounds.
The present species is one of the first in which we
happened to find the unusual nrLSU 5' motif,
TCTGACCTCAAATCA, which occurs in other genera (e.g.,
Limacella), but, in Amanita, seems to be
limited largely to section Vaginatae.
[We have found one apparent exception.]
The more commonly found version of the motif in the
Vaginatae is "TTTGACCTCAAATCA". Species
with this nrLSU 5' motif comprise about 70% of the
section's known members.
Because, as far as we know, we are the first to notice
this phenomenon, we offer a list of taxa with this
A. williamsiae - New York to
South Carolina in Atlantic Coastal Plain, U.S.A.
There are several additional probable taxa
of the Vaginatae that
have the nrLSU 5' "TCTGACCTCAAATCA" motif and are
genetically distinguishable. These entities
are represented by unique collections in the
Roosevelt herbarium that
currently lack a provisional name (or temporary code)
and a determination:
RET 251-3 (New Mexico, U.S.A.)
RET 427-7 (France)
RET 464-2 (Texas, U.S.A.)
RET 463-7 (Texas, U.S.A.)
RET 552-10 (New Jersey, U.S.A.)
RET 572-7 (Wisconsin, U.S.A.)
RET 682-2 (Texas, U.S.A.)
TENN 12512 clone 1 (Tennessee, U.S.A.)
—R. E. Tulloss and L. V. Kudzma
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6. Amanita penetratrix, Coventry, Kent Co., Rhode Island, U.S.A. (RET 793-2)
RET - (1) Devil's Hopyard State Park, Middlesex County,
Connecticut, U.S.A. (RET 703-1)
(2) Connecticut College campus,
New London, New London County, Connecticut,
U.S.A. (RET 704-1)
(3) Day Pond State Park, New London County,
Connecticut, U.S.A. (RET 703-10)
Spike Mikulski - (6) Coventry, Kent County, Rhode Island,
U.S.A. (RET 793-2).
Connie Borodenko - (4-5) Meshomasic State Forest, Middesex
County, Connecticut, U.S.A. (30.viii.2009)
Each spore data set is intended to comprise a set of measurements from a single specimen made by a single observer;
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a single collection inadvertently contains a mixture of taxa.