3. Amanita magniradix, ca. E. Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
Amanita magniradix, as indicated by the name, usually bears a deeply radicating basal bulb that is extremely difficult to excavate in its entirety. The specimen on the left, above, is an exception. The cap of this species bears a notable sterile margin extending a few mm beyond the outer ends of the lamellae—this is in addition to the material of the partial and/or universal veil that often is found hanging from the outer edge of the sterile margin.
The following text is based on original research of R. E. Tulloss.
The cap of A. magniradix is 58 - 150 mm wide, white, sometimes browning slightly near margin with age or after partially drying in the field; at first, it is hemispheric, then it becomes broadly convex to plano-convex. Occasionally, the cap becomes depressed in the center; it is shiny to subshiny and faintly tacky to dry. The cap's flesh is white, unchanging or becoming pallid yellowish tan to yellowish when cut or bruised. The flesh is 9 - 18 mm thick over the stem. The cap's margin is nonstriate, densely appendiculate in a ragged band or like a discontinuous curtain or as flocculence along the edge of an apparent membranous extension of the cap. The volval remnants on the cap are lumpy pyramidal to flattened warts that are irregularly floccose (fluffy near the cap's margin, more compact near the cap's center). Sometimes adjacent pyramidal warts are joined by their tips, sometimes their bases are joined by a nearly complete adnate volval layer. The volval remnants are white at first, then grayish or brownish especially at the wart's top's. Warts are up to 2 mm high, up to 4 mm wide, easily crushed, and leave a thin patch when removed.
The gills of this mushroom are adnate to minutely adnate to free, with or without a decurrent tooth or decurrent line on the top of the stem. They are subclose to subcrowded to crowded, white to off-white to cream to yellowish cream in mass, pale off-white to off-white to cream in side view. They are 6 - 16 mm broad, with white minutely flocculose to flocculose edge, and infrequently are connected to a neighboring gill or short gill. The short gills are truncate to subtruncate to subattenuate to stepwise attenuate to attenuate, plentiful, of diverse lengths, and unevenly distributed.
The stem is 61 - 158 × 7.5 - 18 mm, dry, white to off-white, occasionally bruising yellow to yellow brown to brownish orange and later brown from handling—most of stipe may get brown tints in age. The stem is subcylindric or narrows slightly upward or downward, it flares outward near its top (sometimes slightly at first). The stem is pulverulent-flocculent above its ring or ring-zone, and below the ring the stem is smooth to densely lacerate-floccose or may develop squamules in a number forms (see technical tab). Sometimes the stem surface is decorated by drooping, rather thick, garlands of volval tissue from the internal limb. If no decorations are present, the stem becomes satiny and longitudinally striatulate (decorated with very fine striations). The stem's basal bulb is up to 135 mm or more in length (not yet collected without being broken), 12.5 - 32 mm wide, subsinuous to sinuous, with its surface having appearance of the skin of a new potato. Usually the bulb narrows into a very deeply penetrating radical (often impossible to collect in its entirety). The solid flesh of the stem is the same color as the stem's surface, yellowing or (more often) unchanging when cut or bruised, but with some brownish stains occasionally in the bulb. At first, the stem may bear ring—white, sometimes yellowing then browning with age, staining yellow when bruised in some collections. The ring is floccose to very weakly membranous; when it is floccose, it leaves a dense deposit of material on the upper stem—up to 4 mm thick at the bottom of the deposit. When the ring is weakly membranous at first, it is striate on its upper surface and sometimes bears a thick marginal load of material derived from the internal limb of the volva. In either case, the ring easily breaks up when touched; and fragments come off on one's fingers. In brief, the ring is ephemeral to somewhat persistent. Parts of the volva may be found on the lower stem and the upper part of the bulb in warts like those on pileus (removal leaving a thin basal patch) or in floccose-felted patches or in broken (sometimes rather distant) rings (up to 6 or more) as one sees in A. muscaria and some related taxa. Such volval material is white or whitish or pale grayish white at first and becomes brown with age.
The odor is pleasant, but rather strong when young; later, the odor is pungent on sectioning—like chlorine or as in the "CaCl" group of odors (decaying protein) or like fresh green beans or lima bean pod. The taste has not been recorded.
The species should be considered POISONOUS because of its apparently close phenetic relationship with the toxic A. smithiana.
The spores of A. magniradix measure (6.5-) 8.4 - 11.8 (-14.7) × (4.3-) 4.5 - 6.5 (-7.8) µm and are ellipsoid to elongate to cylindric and amyloid. Although microscopic study is not complete, clamps will probably be found at the bases of some basidia.
At present, this species is know to occur in the U.S.A. from the southern New England states to Tennessee. At least one photograph posted on mushroomobserver.com in 2010 suggests that this species' range may extend westward to the Missippi River south of the Great Lakes. Amanita magniradix appears in hardwood or mixed forests in which oak (Quercus) is present.
This large, white mushroom has a sometimes yellowing, flocculent partial veil and a deeply rooting bulb reminiscent of the bulb of A. smithiana Bas—so deeply rooting that large specimens probably are never collected in their entirety. Amanita magniradix is also somewhat similar to A. rhopalopus Bas; but, among other differences, has consistently narrower spores.—R. E. Tulloss
Great Rooting Lepidella
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The following material is based upon original research by R. E. Tulloss.
In eastern North America, this species is distinguished by the fact that despite all precautions it radicating bulb has never to our knowledge been collected in its entirety.
58 - 150 mm wide, white, sometimes browning slightly near margin with age and drying in field, at first hemispheric, then broadly convex to plano-convex, occasionally depressed in disk, shiny to subshiny, faintly tacky to dry; context white, unchanging or becoming pallid yellowish tan to yellowish (for example, for 5.5 mm depth) under pileipellis in disc) when cut or bruised, 9 - 18 mm thick at stipe, thinning evenly to margin; margin nonstriate, densely appendiculate in ragged band or like discontinuous curtain or as flocculence on edge of apparent membranous extension of pileipellis; universal veil as lumpy pyramidal to crumb-like to flattened warts, irregularly floccose to flocculose (fluffy near margin, more compact near and over disc), sometimes adjacent pyramidal warts joined by their tips, sometimes with bases joined by nearly complete adnate layer, white at first, then grayish or brownish especially at the top at first, up to 2 mm high, up to 4 mm wide, easily crushed, leaving a thin basal patch when removed, weathering to red-brown warts or brown fibrils and fibrillose squamules, with warts over disc most persistent; ??pileipellis peeling completely, sometimes withdrawing from margin due to drying in situ??.
adnate to minutely adnate to free, with or without decurrent tooth or decurrent line on stipe apex, subclose to subcrowded to crowded, white to off-white to pale cream to cream to yellowish cream in mass, pale off-white to off-white to cream in side view, broadest at about mid-radius, 6 - 16 mm broad, with white minutely flocculose to flocculose edge, infrequently anastomosing; lamellulae truncate to subtruncate to subattenuate to stepwise attenuate to attenuate, plentiful, of diverse lengths, unevenly distributed.
61 - 158 × 7.5 - 18 mm, dry, white to off-white, occasionally bruising yellow to yellow brown to brownish orange and later brown from handling, most of stipe may get brown tints in age, subcylindric or narrowing slightly upward or downward, flaring at apex (sometimes slightly at first), pulverulent-flocculent above annulus, below smooth to densely lacerate-floccose or surface having occasional brownish transverse lines as though a pellis had been rolled up into tight appressed rolls or barely to densely covered with brown fibrils which collect in squamules, sometimes with surface decorated by drooping rather thick garlands of limbus internus tissue, else becoming satiny and longitudinally striatulate; bulb up to 135 µm or more in length, 12.5 - 32 mm wide, subsinuous to sinuous, with bulb surface having appearance of skin of new potato, usually with very deeply penetrating basal radical (perhaps impossible to collect in its entirety); context concolorous with surface, yellowing or (more often) unchanging when cut or bruised, but with some brownish stains occasionally in bulb, solid; partial veilwhite, sometimes yellowing then browning with age, sometimes staining yellow when bruised (not constant character), floccose to very weakly membranous, when floccose leaving dense subapical deposit up to 4 mm thick at lowest point, when weakly membranous at first striate on the upper surface and sometimes bearing thick marginal load of limbus internus material, easily coming off on fingers, ephemeral to somewhat persistent; universal veil found on lower stipe and upper bulb in warts like those on pileus (removal leaving thin basal patch) or in floccose-felted patches or in broken (sometimes rather distant) rings (up to 6 or more) as one sees in A. muscaria, white or whitish or pale grayish white at first, browning in age, with warts sometimes bound to bulb surface and resulting in up to 6 or 7 ranks of recurved scales.
Odor pleasant, but rather strong when young, later pungent on sectioning, like chlorine or in "CaCl" group of odors (decaying protein) or like fresh green beans or lima bean pod. Tast not recorded.
Spot test for laccase (syringaldazine) - negative throughout the basidiome including over 135 mm of the radicating bulb. Spot test for tyrosinase (paracresol) - slowly positive (8 min.) in universal veil and in larva tunnels of bulb; after 20 min. positive also in pileus context (disk only), on stipe surface, and in scattered spots throughout the stipe and bulb context. Test vouchers: Tulloss 7-30-89-E.
39 - 58 × 8.7 - 14.0 µm, thin-walled, 4-sterigmate, with sterigmata up to ?? × ?? µm; ??clamps not observed??.
On pileus: filamentous undifferentiated hyphae 4± µm wide, branching; inflated cells dominant, terminal, singly or in short chains, globose to ellipsoid, up to 46 × 30 µm, ??; vascular hyphae up to 12.0 µm wide, ??. On stipe base: ??.
[270/13/13] (6.5-) 8.4 - 11.8 (-14.7) × (4.3-) 4.5 - 6.5 (-7.8) µm, (L = (8.7-) 9.1 - 11.0 µm;
L’ = 10.0 µm; W = 4.9 - 6.1 (-6.2) µm; W’ = 5.5 µm; Q = (1.43-) 1.55 - 2.18 (-2.89); Q = 1.64 - 1.97 (-2.17); Q’ = 1.85), colorless, hyaline, smooth, thin-walled, amyloid, ellipsoid to elongate to cylindric, sometimes swollen at one end, predominantly adaxially flattened, sometimes constricted; apiculus, sublateral, cylindric; contents granular to multiguttulate; white in deposit.
Maine: At 28± m elev. Four ft. from edge of road with Acer rubra, Quercus rubra, and Fagus grandifolia nearby.
Maryland: At 10± m elev.
New Jersey: At 214± m elev. In wet loam of mixed deciduous forest including Acer, Betula, Carpinus caroliniana, Carya ovata, Fagus grandifolia, Liquidambar styraciflua, and Quercus or ??.
New York: At 61± m elev. In mixed woods after record drought.
Tennessee: At 790±-960± m elev. In moist loamy clay of mixed forest including Quercus sp. and Tsuga canadensis on moderately steep slope with understory of flowering plants and plentiful ferns or in road side grass with Quercus.
Co. - Day Pond St. Pk. [41°33'25" N/ 72°25'06" W,
134 m], 22.viii.2008 Don Shernoff s.n. [Tulloss
8-22-08-D] (RET 420-1).
MAINE—Cumberland Co. - N. Yarmouth, ca.
731 Sligo Rd. [43.836395° N/ 70.216288° W, 28 m],
14.ix.1996 S. S. Ristich s.n. [Tulloss 9-4-96-SSR1]
MARYLAND—Caroline Co. - ca. border with
Queen Annes Co., Tuckahoe St. Pk. [38°57'10" N/
75°56'03" W, 10 m], 24.viii.1982 M. A. King, D. C.,
M. H. & R. E. Tulloss [RET] 8-24-82-E
NEW JERSEY—Morris Co. - Hackettstown
Reservoir, 17.viii.1982 A. Norarevian 8-17-82-AN1
(RET 222-8), 10.viii.1984 Roger Phillips &
Robert Peabody [Phillips] 2507 (L; in herb. R.
Phillips; RET 233-3); Mendham, Meadowood Twp. Pk.
[40°47'31" N/ 74°38'43" W, 214 m], 2.viii.1981 J.
Richards s.n. [Tulloss NJMA-8-2-81-B] (RET 929-10),
30.vii.1989 M. A. King & D. C. & R. E.
Tulloss 7-30-89-E (RET 324-4), 30.vii.1989 Hal
Giust s.n. [Tulloss 7-30-89-F] (RET 324-5),
10.x.1993 NJMA foray participant s.n.
(RET 118-8). Warren Co. - Stephens St. Pk.,
NAMA82 foray participant s.n. (in herb. David T.
Jenkins), 4.viii.1996 NJMA foray participant
s.n. [Tulloss 8-4-96-A] (RET 229-2), 29.viii.2004
Ania & Glenn Boyd s.n. (RET 381-1).
NEW YORK—Ulster Co. - Rosendale, Center
for Symbolic Studies [41°49'24" N/ 74°05'19" W,
60 m], 25.ix.2010 George Yager s.n. [Tulloss
9-25-10-B] (RET 486-6).
Co. - North Park, 16.ix.2006, W. Penn. Mushr. Club
foray participant s.n. [Tulloss 9-16-06-C]
(RET 394-10). Monroe Co. - ca. East
Stroudsburg, 21.viii.1982 NAMA82 foray participant
s.n. [Tulloss 8-21-82-G] (RET
TENNESSEE—Blount Co. - GSMNP, Cades
Cove, ca. outlet of Loop Rd., 27.ix.2006 E.
Lickey, D. J. Lodge & R. E. Tulloss
[Tulloss] 9-27-06-J (RET 401-10; TENN).
Sevier Co. - ca. Gatlinburg, GSMNP, Cherokee
Orchard [35.6811° N/ 83.4625° W, 945 m],
12.vii.2004 R. E. Halling s.n. [Tulloss 7-12-04-L]
(RET 375-5). ca. Gatlinburg, GSMNP, Grotto
Falls Tr. [35.6752° N/83.4858° W, 780 m],
12.vii.2004 S. Tieken & R. E. Tulloss
7-12-04-Q (RET 374-4), Matt Kierle s.n. [Tulloss
7-12-04-Z] (RET 375-4).
WEST VIRGINIA—Randolph Co. - Elkins,
s.d. C. Willet s.n. [Tulloss 8-3-85-C]
[See in MICH: W. B. Cooke
35527—29.viii.1965, Old Man’s Cave St. Pk., Hocking
Co., OH), Harry Knighton 13 (??).]
[Also check 7-29-84-E1 (RET 049-4) and
7-29-84-E2 (RET 049-1).]
This large, white mushroom has a sometimes yellowing, flocculent partial veil and a deeply rooting bulb reminiscent of the bulb of A. smithiana Bas of Bas' stirps Rhopalopus—so deeply rooting that large specimens probably are never collected in their entirety. A comparison sporograph for A. smithiana and the present species follows.
Amanita magniradix is also somewhat similar to A. rhopalopus Bas (stirps Rhopalopus); but, among other differences, has consistently narrower spores. See the comparison sporograph below.
—R. E. Tulloss
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Great Rooting Lepidella
1. Amanita magniradix, GSMNP, Tennessee, U.S.A.
2. Amanita magniradix, ??, U.S.A.
3. Amanita magniradix, ca. E. Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
RET - (1) Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee , U.S.A.
(2) ?? , U.S.A.
(3) ca. East Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
Spore data for collections provisionally identified as: Amanita magniradix Tulloss
Each spore data set is intended to comprise a set of measurements from a single specimen made by a single observer;
and explanations prepared for this site talk about specimen-observer pairs associated with each data set.
Combining more data into a single data set is non-optimal because it obscures observer differences
(which may be valuable for instructional purposes, for example) and may obscure instances in which
a single collection inadvertently contains a mixture of taxa.