The following is based
on the original description of Tulloss, Perez-Silva & T. Herrera
The cap of Amanita longitibiale is 38 - 100
mm wide, sometimes yellowish cream at first, eventually pale grayish
brown to umbrinous with pale gray to slightly yellowish margin, unevenly hemispherical to ovoid at
first, then plano-convex, often with a low umbo, subviscid, shiny when
dry, with an inflexed margin at first, later decurved, then nonstriate
and nonappendiculate. The volva is absent or of dispersed patches, pallid,
easily removed, with pale orangish-brown or a pale and sordid orangish-brown
The gills are free or attached by a line, close,
white, sometimes with a light pink tint, moderately broad to broad, with
a floccose and concolorous edge. The short gills are attenuate,
plentiful, and in several ranks.
The stem is 50 - 110 × 6 - 30 mm, white,
narrowing slightly upward, pruinose above the ring, furfuraceous below.
The stem's bulb occupied one-third of the stem's length. It is usually
rather slender, pointed below, or rooting. The flesh is white. The ring
is skirt-like, flaring, membranous, copious, persistent, thin, striate
on the upper surface, and superior. The volva is limbate or saccate,
sometimes becoming detached to the bulb surface so it only remains
attached to the bottom twenty-percent of the bulb. The volva is
membranous and tough. The exterior surface sometimes getting brown or rusty or pinkish tints.
KOH on the cap is immediately orange or reddish orange.
As a precaution, this mushroom should be considered deadly POISONOUS.
The spores measure (10.0-) 10.5 - 12.8
(-14.8) × (4.2-) 5.0 - 6.5 (-7.2) µm and are elongate to cylindric,
rarely bacilliform and amyloid. Clamps are present (sparsely
distributed) at bases of basidia.
Species was originally described from the
neo-volcanic zone of Mexico. It is also known from North Carolina, USA.
In Mexico it is found with pine and fir; in North Carolina it was found
in the sandy clay of a mixed hard-wood forest.
The editors of this site owe a great debt to Dr. Cornelis Bas
whose famous cigar box files of Amanita nomenclatural information
gathered over three or more decades were made available to RET for computerization
and make up the lion's share of the nomenclatural information presented on this site.
longus (long) + tibiale (stocking)
The name was chosen both because of the extremely long free limb of the saccate universal veil, which clearly contains the stipe base, but also to commemorate the wonderful children's books created by Astrid Lindgren that featured the character Pippi Longstocking.
Due to delays in data processing at GenBank, some accession numbers may lead to unreleased (pending) pages.
These pages will eventually be made live, so try again later.
Pérez-Silva & T. Herrera. 1991. Iconogr. macromic. México. I Amanita: 65, pl. XVIII; 113, fig. 38.
38 - 100 mm wide, sometimes yellowish cream (about 4A3) at first, eventually pale grayish brown (5B3) to grayish brown to umbrinous with pale gray to slightly yellowish gray margin, marginal region sometimes virgate, unevenly hemispheric to ovoid at first, then plano-convex, often with low broad umbo, subviscid, shiny when dry; context white, rather thick in disk (thickness up to about one half of stipe diameter), narrowing evenly to margin; margin inflexed at first, later decurved, nonstriate, nonappendiculate; universal veil absent or as dispersed patches, pallid, detersile, with pale orangish-brown or a pale and sordid orangish brown (5B4 or a little grayer than 5B4) tint.
free or attached by a line, with decurrent line on stipe apex, close, white, sometimes with a light pink tint, somewhat orangish tan (close to 5B5) in dried material, moderately broad to broad, with floccose and concolorous edge; lamellulae attenuate, plentiful, in several ranks.
50 - 110 (includes bulb) × 6 - 30 mm, white, narrowing slightly upward, pruinose above annulus, furfuraceous below; bulb occupying about one third to one half of stipe length, pointed below or radicating, usually rather slender, sometimes as only slight swelling of stipe before start of tapering to point; context white, sometimes with pink tones in bulb, firm, solid to stuffed becoming hollow; partial veil skirtlike and flaring at first, membranous, copious, persistent, white, thin, striate above, superior to subapical to apical; universal veil as limbate to saccate volva, adnate from broadest part of bulb downward or attached only for as little as bottom fifth of bulb length, forming hollow cylinder around stipe base, with free portion sometimes separated from bulb and slid short distance up stipe (Fig. 1), with margin lobed unevenly (sometimes very markedly so) or by presence of many short vertical slits in edge, membranous and tough (remaining so in exsiccata, white, with exterior becoming pale brownish to ochraceous, sometimes with tints of rose at base, with inner surface remaining pallid.
Odor farinaceous (Mexican material) or not distinctive (Bixler s.n.). Taste mild.
95% methanol (control) - negative on pileus, on lamella, in volval limb interior, and in stipe context (including bulb). 10% KOH - on pileus, immediately orange to reddish orange (7A6); on lamella, negative; other spots not tested. Spot test for tyrosinase (L-tyrosine) - on pileus and lamella surface deep pink (12A6) spottily after 15 min., in volval limb interior pink (12A4) after 5 min., on annulus pinkish white (12A2) after 5 min.; other spots not tested. Spot test for tyrosinase (paracresol) - on pileus and lamella surface pinkish white (12A2) after 10 min.; in volval limb interior, negative; other spots not tested. Spot test for laccase (syringaldazine) - negative on pileus and lamella surface, in stipe context, and in volval limb interior; other spots not tested.
10 - 15 µm thick, yellow-brown to orange-brown in 3% KOH; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 2.8 - 5.0 µm wide, interwoven, extensively gelatinizing, with subradial arrangement notable near disk; vascular hyphae 2.2 - 8.0 µm wide, branching, sinuous, common.
filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 1.8 - 15.0 µm wide, branching, mostly in fascicles, with those of largest diameter being slightly inflated; acrophysalides narrowly clavate to clavate to narrowly ellipsoid to pyriform, up to 103 × 50 µm, sometimes in chains, with walls thin to slightly thickened (up to 0.5* µm thick); vascular hyphae not observed.
bilateral, broad, with wcs = 50 - 90 µm in specimen dried with sporulation just beginning (MEXU 23831); with elements of subhymenial base [inflated cells narrowly clavate to clavate to ovoid, up to 61 × 25 µm, thin-walled, with major axis aligned at angles from very shallow to nearly perpendicular to central stratum, occasionally curved (longest cells)] diverging from central stratum at very shallow angle and continuing in smooth broad curve until entering subhymenium at angle of 45° - 90°; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 1.5 - 9.0 µm wide, densely interwoven and often with constricted septa in central stratum, with some intercalary segments slightly inflated (up to 13.5 µm wide); divergent, terminal inflated cells not observed; vascular hyphae not observed; clamps scarce.
wst-near = 80 - 120 µm in specimen dried with sporulation just beginning (MEXU 23831); wst-far = 115- 140 µm in specimen dried with sporulation just beginning (MEXU 23831); intensely ramifying, comprising small cells (inflated to subinflated to uninflated, frequently irregular or branched) taking on any angle to central stratum (including parallel to it and often developing in direction opposite to that of trama divergence), with basidia arising multiply (from inflated elements) or singly from uninflated elements or small inflated elements.
On stipe base, outer surface: filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 1.2 - 7.5 µm wide, in fascicles interwoven loosely without dominant orientation, occasionally with horizontal orientation. On stipe base, interior: filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 2.0 - 7.0 µm wide, with strong longitudinal orientation, often in fascicles, branching, plentiful; inflated cells plentiful to dominant, narrowly clavate to clavate to broadly clavate to elongate-ellipsoid, thin-walled, up to 93 × 50+ µm; vascular hyphae 2.0 - 6.0 µm wide, branching, most frequent near inner surface of limb. On stipe base, inner surface: like limb interior except for scattered fragments of fascicles of partially gelatinized, filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae. On pileus, upper surface: filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 1.0 - 4.8 µm wide, partially gelatinizing, in fascicles having largely co-parallel orientation, but occasionally perpendicular to main group. On pileus, interior and lower layers: as on stipe base, with uncommon vascular hyphae as narrow as 2.8 µm wide.
longitudinally acrophysalidic; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 1.5 - 8.5 µm wide, with some of greatest diameter having walls 0.5 -1.0 µm thick; acrophysalides up to 268 × 36 µm, thin-walled, dominating; vascular hyphae 4.2 - 11.0 µm wide, branching; clamps scarce.
filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 1.5 - 7.5 µm wide, very loosely interwoven, frequently branching, collapsing, with some (especially those of larger diameter) in radially oriented fascicles; inflated cells intercalary or terminal or in short terminal chains, clavate or as slightly inflated hyphal segments, up to 52 × 19.0 µm; vascular hyphae not observed; clamps not observed. All tissues hyaline and colorless unless otherwise stated.
The following data is from the Florida specimen listed below and is provided for comparison with the data from the protolog:[80/4/1] (9.4-) 9.8 - 14.7 × (4.9-) 5.2 - 6.3 (-7.0) μm, (L = 11.7 - 12.6 μm; L' = 12.0 μm; W = 5.7 - 5.9 μm; W' = 5.8 μm; Q = 1.78 - 2.33 (-2.38); Q = 1.99 - 2.19; Q' = 2.06).
composite of all material examined: [200/9/6] (9.4-) 10.5 - 13.3 (-14.8) × (4.2-) 5.0 - 6.3 (-7.2) μm, (L = 11.4 - 12.3 (-12.6) μm; L' = 11.8 μm; W = (5.4-) 5.6 - 5.9 μm; W' = 5.7 μm; Q = (1.56-) 1.79 - 2.31 (-3.04); Q = 1.99 - 2.19 (-2.28); Q' = 2.08), hyaline, colorless, smooth, thin-walled, amyloid, elongate to cylindric, rarely ellipsoid, sometimes constricted (frequently so in some collections, rarely so in others), sometimes expanded at one end; apiculus sublateral, cylindric, proportionately small; contents monoguttulate; ?? in deposit.
Solitary. Mexico: In forest of Pinus or in Pinus-Abies forest. North Carolina: In sandy clay of mixed hardwood forest.
from protolog: MÉXICO: DISTRITO FEDERAL— km 20 on Ajusco-Jalatlaco Rd., 25.vii.1980 E. Pérez-Silva & E. Chinchilla s.m. (paratype, MEXU 16140 as "A. peckiana"), 21.vii.1982 E. Aguirre et al. s.n. (holotype, MEXU 17384 as "A. peckiana"); km 25 on Ajusco-Jalatlaco Rd., 10.ix.1993 E. Pérez-Silva, T. Herrera & D. Rodríguez s.n. (paratype, MEXU 23831; paratype, RET 125-9). EDO. MÉXICO—Llano Grande, ca. Río Frío, 11.viii.1968 E. Pérez-Silva s.n. (paratype, MEXU 6348 as "A. peckiana"). U. S. A.: NORTH CAROLINA—Macon Co. - NW of Highlands, Gold Mine Rd. at jct. of Hwy. 64, 28.vii.1987 Dike Bixley s.n. (paratype, SFSU).
Post protolog: U. S. A.: FLORIDA—Brevard Co. - Eau Gallie, Wickham Pk., 9-10.xi.1985 A. Norarevian & E. R. Yetter s.n. [Tulloss 11-9/10-85-EY] (RET 081-6).
The provisionally named A. mediinox is a second North American taxon with a pigmented cap and rather elongate spores that is thought to be assignable to Amanita sect. Phalloideae at the present time. A sporograph comparison of the present species with A. mediinox is provided below.
—R. E. Tulloss
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Tulloss, Pérez-Silva & T. Herrera
"Long Stocking Death Cap"
1. Amanita longitibiale
Line drawing: R. E. Tulloss (based on field
drawing of paratype by D. E. Desjardin, North Carolina, USA).
Each spore data set is intended to comprise a set of measurements from a single specimen made by a single observer;
and explanations prepared for this site talk about specimen-observer pairs associated with each data set.
Combining more data into a single data set is non-optimal because it obscures observer differences
(which may be valuable for instructional purposes, for example) and may obscure instances in which
a single collection inadvertently contains a mixture of taxa.