The description is not
based on recent material. It is based on the original description by
A modern description of this taxon can be found in the work of Zhu L.
where it is treated as A. sychnopyramis f. subannulata Hongo. The
two names are taxonomic synonyms.
The cap of Amanita kwangsiensis is 30 - 95 mm wide,
dresden brown, mummy-brown in center, at first hemispheric, then convex,
with a nonappendiculate, markedly striate margin (about 20% of the
radius), often splitting, somewhat incurved at first, then remaining downwardly curved. The flesh is white. The volva
is present as pyramidal warts, white to grayish-white, plentiful, and
at first rather evenly distributed.
Gills are free, close to crowded, white. Short
gills are present.
The stem is 30 - 110 × 10 - 17 mm, white,
becoming sordid yellow, and narrowing upward. The bulb is narrowly
subfusiform to subclavate to subnapiform, with a blunt point below. The
flesh is white, solid (hollow in dried material of the type), and fleshy. The
ring is placed near or below the middle of the stem, membranous, thin, narrow,
skirt-like, rather rapidly lost, white and striate above,
grayish-white below, with dark and dash-like fragments of volva
decorating the margin. The volva is missing from the bulb or present in 4 - 5
inconspicuous circles of fine fragments.
This species should be considered POISONOUS.
The spores from the type specimen measure (5.5-) 6.0 - 7.8 (-9.0)
× (5.2-) 5.5 - 7.0 (-7.2) µm
and is globose to subglobose to broadly ellipsoid, infrequently
ellipsoid and inamyloid. Clamps were not observed at bases of basidia.
Yang provided spore measurements from Southern China, which measured
(6.0-) 6.5 - 8.5 (-9.5) × 6.9 - 8.0 (-9.0) µm.
Yang's measurements include the type specimen as well as fourteen other
Amanita kwangsiensis should be considered POISONOUS.
Wang describes tests in which mice were injected with a water solution
of an alcohol extract of dried material. Within fifteen minutes, all six
mice became paralyzed for a period of twelve hours. Afterwards, five
recovered and one died. Yang also reports this species as poisonous to
This species was originally described from Quangxi
Province (China) where it was reported as gregarious under pine. Hongo's
description of forma subannulata was made based on Japanese
material. In Southwest China this species grows with Castanopsis
and Lithocarpus (Yang, 1997).—R. E. Tulloss and L. Possiel
Y. C. Wang. 1973. Acta Microbiol. Sin. 13(1): 7, figs. 1-2.
"Wang Forest of Pyramids Amanita"
?=Amanita sychnopyramis f. subannulata Hongo. 1971. Mem. Fac. Liberal Arts Shiga Univ. 21: 63, fig. 31(3-5).
The editors of this site owe a great debt to Dr. Cornelis Bas
whose famous cigar box files of Amanita nomenclatural information
gathered over three or more decades were made available to RET for computerization
and make up the lion's share of the nomenclatural information presented on this site.
Due to delays in data processing at GenBank, some accession numbers may lead to unreleased (pending) pages.
These pages will eventually be made live, so try again later.
A. kwangsiensis—HMAS 35539. A. sychnopyramis f. subannulata—TNS [per Doi. 1991. Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus., Tokyo, Ser. B 17(2): 51, fig. 31(3-5).]
A. kwangsiensis—Tulloss (here).
A. sychnopyramis f. subannulata—Z. L. Yang. 1997. Biblioth. Mycol. 170: 27, figs. 15-18.
Imazeki and Hongo. 1987. Color. Illus. Mushr. Japan 1: 119, pl. 28 (fig. 200).
The following text may make multiple use of each data field.
The field may contain magenta text presenting data from a type study
and/or revision of other original material cited in the protolog of the present taxon.
Macroscopic descriptions in magenta are a combination of data from the protolog and
additional observations made on the exiccata during revision of the cited original
The same field may also contain black text, which is data from a revision of the present
taxon (including non-type material and/or material not cited in the protolog).
Paragraphs of black text will be labeled if further subdivision of
this text is appropriate.
Olive text indicates a specimen that has not been
thoroughly examined (for example, for microscopic details) and marks other places in the text
where data is missing or uncertain.
The following material not directly from the protolog of the present taxon is annotated to indicate whether it is based on revision by Dr. Z. L. Yang (1997) or based upon
original research by R. E. Tulloss.
NOTE: Spore data from papers by Z. L. Yang are presented following his use of the "Times New Roman" face for "Q" and "Q'"—respectively, "Q" and "Q."
from type study of RET: 30 - 95 mm wide, Dresden Brown, with Mummy Brown disc, at first hemispheric, then convex; context white; margin markedly striate (0.2±R), often becoming rimose, somewhat incurved at first, then decurved, nonappendiculate; universal veil as pyramidal warts, whitish to grayish white, plentiful, at first rather evenly distributed.
from protolog of A. sychnopyramis f. subannulata: 30 - 90 mm wide, Bister to Clove Brown over disc, elsewhere Snuff Brown to Wood Brown, hemispheric to convex, then flattened with somewhat depressed disc, more or less viscid when moist; context white, thin, rather fragile; margin tuberculate-striate (0.5±R); universal veil as pyramidal warts, whitish to pale grayish-brownish, floccose, 0.5 - 1.5 × 0.5 -2 mm, approximately arrayed concentrically.
from type study of RET: free, close to crowded, white; lamellulae present.
from protolog of A. sychnopyramis f. subannulata: free, close, white, 4 - 11 mm broad, with minutely flocculose edge, ventricose, often intervenose, 80 - 120 per specimen; lamellulae truncate, with 0 - 1 between otherwise adjacent pair of lamellae.
from type study of RET: 30 - 110 × 10 - 17 mm, white, becoming sordid yellow, narrowing upward; bulb narrowly subfusiform to subclavate to subnapiform, with a blunt point below; context white, fleshy, solid (hollow in exsiccata); partial veil submedian to inferior, membranous, thin, narrow, skirt-like, rather rapidly evanescent, white and striate above, grayish white below, with dark and dash-like fragments of universal veil decorating the margin; universal veil lacking or present in 4 - 5 inconspicuous circles of fine fragments.
from protolog of A. sychnopyramis f. subannulata: 35 - 120 × 4 - 10 mm (width measured at apex), whitish to pale pinkish buff, often grayish near base, cylindric or narrowing upward slightly; bulb 10 - 20 mm wide, obovate, sometimes dog-legged (per fig.), sometimes pointed below (per fig.); context stuffed or hollow; partial veil median (per fig.), white, small, very thin, with grayish floccose margin, somewhat persistent to fugacious ("at times observed only in unexpanded specimens"); universal veil as small ivory yellow warts in concentric encircling rings on lower stipe and upper bulb (per fig.).
from protolog of A. sychnopyramis f. subannulata: Odor agreeable; taste mild.
from protolog: none reported. POISON: Poisonous nature assayed by injection of six mice with water solution of methanol extract from 20 g of dried specimens per kg body weight. All mice suffered paralysis within 15 min of injection. This paralysis lasted 12 hr. in five mice that recovered; one mouse died.
from Yang (1997): "According to Wang (1973) and by my own (Yang 1994) observations, this fungus is TOXIC to flies."
from protolog of A. sychnopyramis f. subannulata: 30 - 44 × 11 - 13 μm, 4-sterigmate.
from protolog of A. sychnopyramis f. subannulata: On pileus: filamentous hyphae 5 - 7.5 μm wide; inflated cells globose to clavate to subcylindric, 17 - 38 × 10 - 31 μm, thin-walled in more or less anticlinally oriented chains. On stipe: not described.
lamella edge tissue
from protolog of A. sychnopyramis f. subannulata: 20 - 50 × 10 - 26 μm, subglobose to pyriform.
from type study of RET: [80/4/1] (5.5-) 6.0 - 7.8 (-9.0) × (5.2-) 5.5 - 7.0 (-7.2) μm, (L = 6.6 - 7.3 μm; L' = 6.9 μm; W = 6.0 - 6.6 μm; W' = 6.2 μm; Q = 1.03 - 1.25 (-1.32); Q = 1.10 - 1.13; Q' = 1.12), hyaline, colorless, smooth, thin-walled, inamyloid, globose to subglobose to broadly ellipsoid, infrequently ellipsoid, adaxially flattened; apiculus sublateral, truncate-conic; contents granular to monoguttulate; white in deposit.
from Yang (1997)as A. sychnopyramis f. subannulata: [340/15/7] (6.0-) 6.5 - 8.5 (-9.5) × 6.0 - 8.0 (-9.0) μm, (Q = (1.0-) 1.03 - 1.14 (-1.19); Q = 1.07 ± 0.04), globose to subglobose, rarely broadly ellipsoid, inamyloid, colorless, hyaline, smooth, thin-walled; apiculus relatively large (1.0 × 1.0 μm,).
from Yang et al. (2001) as Amanita sychnopyramis f. subannulata: [170/13/7] (6.0-) 6.5 - 8.0 (-10.0) × (5.5-) 6.0 - 7.5 (-9.0) μm, (Q = 1.0 - 1.16 (-1.33); Q = 1.09 ± 0.06), globose to subglobose, occasionaly broadly ellipsoid, rarely ellipsoid, colorless, hyaline, thin-walled, inamyloid.
Solitary or in small groups or gregarious. China: At 1400-1750 m elev. Under Pinus or on soil in broad-leaved forest or in broad-leaved forest with Castanopsis and Lithocarpus. Japan: In Castanopsis cuspidata forest.
from protolog of A. sychnopyramis f. subannulata: JAPAN: HONSHU—Shiga-ken - Ôtsu-shi, Kokubu, 6.vii.1970 T. Hongo 4139 (paratype of A. sychnopyramis f. subannulata, in herb. T. Hongo), 15.vii.1970 T. Hongo 4166 (holotype of A. sychnopyramis f. subannulata, in herb. T. Hongo => TNS F-237283).
from type study of RET: CHINA: GUANGXI AUTONOMOUS REGION—Guilin (prefecture level) City - Pingle Co., Chinglung, 24.v.1973 Zong Yu-chen, Xu Lian-wang & Mao Xao-lan 56 (holotype, HMAS 35539).
from Yang (1997) as A. sychnopyramis f. subannulata: CHINA: GUANGXI AUTONOMOUS REGION—Guilin (prefecture level) City - Pingle Co., Chinglung, 24.v.1973 Y. C. Zong, L. W. Xu & X. L. Mao 56 (holotype, HMAS 35539).
YUNNAN—Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture - Xichou Co., Fadou, 1550 m elev.,16.vi.1992 Zhu L. Yang 1717 (HKAS 26141), 18.vi.1992 Zhu L. Yang 1743 (HKAS 26144); Xichou Co., Fadou, 1750 m elev., 18.vi.1992 P. G. Liu 1119 (HKAS 26140). Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture - Malipo Co., Laojunshan, 23.vi.1992 Zhu L. Yang 1759 (HKAS 26143).
from Yang et al. (2001) as A. sychnopyramis f. subannulata:
HAINAN—Ledong Li Autonomous Co. - Jianfengling, 20.iv.1960 J. H. Yu & R. Liu 1107 (HMAS 27959, as "Amanita pantherina" in Teng (1963, 1996) and in Tai (1979)), 23.v.1988 G. Y. Zheng s.n. (HMIGD 14558, as "Amanita aspera" in Bi et al. (1997)), 26.ix.1987 T. H. Li s.n. (HMIGD 12446b, as "Amanita bingensis" in Bi et al. (1997), 18.v.1988 H. W. Chen s.n. (HMIGD 14478, as "Amanita kwangsiensis" in Bi et al. (1997)), ix.1999 X. L. Wu 5 (HKAS 34095). Unkn. Co. - Wuzhishan, 17.v.1988 T. H. Li s.n. (HMIGD 13814, as "Amanita albocreata" in Bi et al. (1997)).
Unfortunately, anatomy of the basidiomes of the holotype collection is somewhat difficult to determine with confidence due to extensive attack by a mold. This made a full description of the lamella trama and universal veil impossible, and the description above includes some attempt at reconstruction (signified by the word "probably"). No remnant of the partial veil was to be found on any of the four basidiomes of the type.
In the protolog, Wang states that the species is similar to A. pantherina (DC.:Fr.) Krombh., but is separable by the small size of the spores. I have examined the spores of several European collections (Tulloss 9-23-89-A and Tulloss 9?19?87?A from the Netherlands, C. Lavorato 911020-03 from Switzerland—all in RET) of A. pantherina and obtained the following spore measurements: [340/17/10] (7.5–) 8.5–11.7 (–14.0) × (4.9–) 6.2–8.1 (–9.8) µm, (L = (9.4–) 9.5–11.2 (–11.3) µm; L’ = 10.2 µm; W = (6.6–) 6.7–7.7 (–8.0) µm; W’ = 7.2 µm; Q = (1.20–) 1.27–1.60 (–2.04); Q = (1.32–) 1.34–1.51 (–1.61); Q’ = 1.42). The ephemeral, inferior annulus and lack of a cothurnate volva are two macroscopic characters also serving to separate the present species from A. pantherina.
A sporograph comparison between the present species and A. pantherina is provided below.
While the available spore data for the exannulate species A. sychnopyramis f. sychnopyramis is insufficient to create a sporograph, it is reasonable to believe [from the description of Corner and Bas (1962)] that the spores would lie within these bounds: [-/-/-] 6.3 - 8.1 × 6.3 - 8.1 μm, (L = 7.2± μm; W = 7.2± μm; Q = 1.0 - 1.14).
Each spore data set is intended to comprise a set of measurements from a single specimen made by a single observer;
and explanations prepared for this site talk about specimen-observer pairs associated with each data set.
Combining more data into a single data set is non-optimal because it obscures observer differences
(which may be valuable for instructional purposes, for example) and may obscure instances in which
a single collection inadvertently contains a mixture of taxa.