From what is presently known of the recently described
A. ochraceomaculata Neville & Poumarat of
Europe, RET believes that the name may be taxonomically
synonymous with A. fulva.
Occasionally, albino specimens of this species are
The cap of Amanita fulva is usually free of volval remnants, 35 - 95 mm wide, umbonate at maturity, with a strongly striate margin; it is orange-brown, paler at the margin, and darker (even very dark brown) in the center. Infrequently, roughly polygonal pieces of the volva may stick to the surface.
The gills are free, close
to subcrowded, white to pale cream in mass, and up to 6.5
mm broad; the short gills are truncate, of varying
length, adjacent to margin or stipe or neither.
The stem is 80 - 150 × 6 -
20 mm, predominantly white, and exannulate, with
a membranous sack-like volva at the base. The external
surface of the 30 - 80 × 8 - 35 mm volva commonly takes
on red-brown to rusty stains.
The odor is absent or faintly "fungoid."
The spores measure (9.0-)
10.0 - 12.5 (-19.3) × (8.2-) 9.3 - 12.0 (-15.5) µm and
are globose to subglobose (rarely broadly ellipsoid) and
inamyloid. Clamps are absent from bases of basidia.
Amanita fulva is
widely distributed in Europe in association with pine,
spruce, birch, beech, and oak.
While this name is applied to collections made in the Americas, no such collection
examined by me has ever proven to be the European
species. One American taxon to which the European name
has been incorrectly applied is Amanita fuligineodisca Tulloss,
Ovrebo & Halling (known from Honduras to Andean Colombia, occurring with oak);
several others remain to be formally described.
≡Agaricus fulvus Schaeff. 1774. Fung. Bavar. Palatin. Ratisbon. Nascunt. Icones 4: 41. [Ref. pl. 95 in vol. 1 (1762).]
For a more extensive treatment of the nomenclatural history of A. fulva, see Amanita Nomenclator (t.b.d.)
The editors of this site owe a great debt to Dr. Cornelis Bas
whose famous cigar box files of Amanita nomenclatural information
gathered over three or more decades were made available to RET for computerization
and make up the lion's share of the nomenclatural information presented on this site.
fulvus "tawny" "the color of a lion"
[Note: Various mycological authors have translated the term into English and classed the color as a "red-brown" or an "orange-brown." A nineteenth century study of Fries' use of color terms (cf. W. T. Stearn 1992) said Fries applied fulvus to a color in the red-brown series citing the two definitions given above.]
Olive text indicates a specimen that has not been
thoroughly examined (for example, for microscopic details) and marks other places in the text
where data is missing or uncertain.
The following is based on original research by R. E. Tulloss.
38 - 94 mm wide, fulvous to deep fulvous to
orange-brown (5C6, browner than 6D5, 6D7, 7.5YR 5/8,
10YR 7/6) to slightly brassy yellow-brown, sometimes
pallid at very margin, with disc sometimes becoming
paler or grayer with in situ drying, infrequently
entirely white, unchanging when
cut or bruised, broadly campanulate, then hemispheric
and subumbonate, eventually plano-convex with umbo,
sometimes developing radially oriented fibrillosity
with in situ drying, tacky to subviscid, subshiny to
dull; context white, unchanging when cut or
bruised, sometimes with brownish or sordid region
below pileipellis in disc, sometimes with
watersoaked spots above stipe context or above
lamellae, 1 - 5 mm thick above stipe, thinning
evenly toward margin for 65% to 90% of radius, then
membranous to margin; margin striate
(0.2R - 0.65R), nonappendiculate; universal
veil almost always absent, infrequently as
membranous patch (at times becoming areolate).
free without decurrent line on stipe apex,
infrequently with short decurrent tooth, close to
subcrowded, white to pale cream in mass, white
(sometimes pale pinkish cream in albino material) in
side view, unchanging when cut or bruised, rather
thick, 2.5 - 6.5 mm broad, broadest at mid-radius,
often with minute white
flocculence on edge (lens); lamellulae
truncate, of diverse lengths, unevenly distributed,
attached to stipe or to pileus margin or to neither.
50 - 146 × 6 - 20 µm, pallidly concolorous with pileus
or white above with brownish tint below or entirely
white at first and becoming pale orangish brown,
narrowing upward, sometimes slightly flattened,
surface sometimes developing raised fibrils (browning
from handling) at maturity, in young large specimens
sometimes bearing thin layer of white felted material
in upper portion previously in contact with edges of
lamellae; context white, sometimes brownish in
base, with larva tunnels concolorous or brown
(especially in age), hollow, with some cottony white
fibrils or white fibrillose-felted material in
central cylinder at least at first, with central
cylinder 2.5 - 10 mm wide; exannulate;
universal veil as saccate volva, membranous,
sometimes cracking into large pieces especially in
material from very wet soils, soft, white or whitish,
often with rusty or orange-brown spots or stains
externally, pale orangish brown on interior surface,
1 - 2 mm thick at mid-height of limb, 32 - 80 × 8 -
31 mm, merging with stipe at very base, with
membranous limbus internus positioned about half way
between top of limb and point of attachment.
Odor faintly fungoid or lacking. Taste not recorded.
Spot test for laccase (syringaldazine) - In button, faintly positive in one spot in base of stipe; in mature (but not old) specimen, positive slightly less weakly in two spots in base of stipe. Spot test for tyrosinase (paracresol) - In button, positive throughout basidiome except for upper stipe context; in mature, but not old specimen, the same except for weaker reaction in spots on lamellae. Test voucher: Tulloss 9-5-88-G.
55 - 80 µm thick, gelatinizing and colorless just at surface, otherwise yellow-orange; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 2.8 - 7.0 µm wide, ?, densely packed, dominantly subradially arranged, but with some at angles so as to criss-cross; vascular hyphae not observed.
bilateral, with some elongate cells of subhymenial tree having major axis perpendicular to central stratum, with relatively large inflated cells of subhymenial base (up to 76 × 44 µm) sometimes obscuring central stratum; wcs = 85 - 90 µm; ?; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 2.1 - 5.6 µm wide, branching, ?; divergent, terminal inflated cells, not observed; vascular hyphae ? µm wide, ?.
wst-near = 55 - 60 µm; wst-far = 90 - 95 µm; locally pseudoparenchymatous (cellular), but often with plentiful branching hyphae near bases of basidia, with basidia arising from small inflated cells and short uninflated or partially inflated hyphal segments.
43 - 71 × 13.0 - 17.8 µm, dominantly 4-, occasionally 2-, rarely 1-sterigmate, with sterigmata up to 15.5 × 2.9 µm; clamps not observed.
On pileus: as scant partially gelatinized or barely gelatinized layer of material from inner surface of limb on stipe base. On stipe base, exterior surface: ?. On stipe base, interior: filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 2.1 - 13.3 µm wide, dominating, sometimes in fascicles; inflated cells thin-walled, globose to subglobose, in local clusters, up to 70 × 63 µm; vascular hyphae 4.5 - 5.2 µm wide, branching. On stipe base, inner surface: ?.
double click in markup mode to edit.
absent in sect. Vaginatae.
lamella edge tissue
sterile; in 2 - 4 (-5?) layers, in terminal chains,
thin-walled, up to 40 × 31 µm, with plentiful hyphae
interweaving and running parallel to lamella edge.
RET: [300/13/10] (9.0-) 10.0 - 12.5 (-19.3) × (8.2-) 9.3 -
12.0 (-15.5) µm, (L = 10.6 - 12.0 (-12.3) µm;
L’ = 11.2 µm; W = 9.8 - 11.4 (-11.6)
µm; W’ = 10.6 µm; Q = 1.0 - 1.11 (-1.25);
Q = 1.05 - 1.08 (-1.09); Q’ = 1.06),
hyaline, colorless, smooth, thin-walled, inamyloid,
cyanophilic?, globose to subglobose, rarely broadly
ellipsoid, adaxially flattened; apiculus
sublateral or rarely (and then on giant or
malformed spores) lateral, cylindric to
truncate-conic, sometimes rather broad;
contents granular to mono- or multiguttulate
with or without additional small granules; white in
Solitary to scattered to subgregarious.
France: In sand of mixed decidous wood with some
Sphagnum in forest of Betula,
Picea, and Pinus or in rather dry acid
soil of reafforestation area under
20 year old Picea abies.
Norway: In subalpine Betula forest or
with Betula in montane meadow.
England, U.K.: In thin loam fertilized by horses
with Fagus sylvatica, Ilex, and
Quercus or in loam in area with common, large
conifer stumps, with Betula, F.
sylvatica, and Quercus.
Scotland, U.K.: In cool wet soil or peat with
Pinus sylvestris and scattered Betula
pendula × verrucosa (with or without
Sphagnum and understory of Vaccinium)
or in Sphagnum over thick peat with B.
pendula × verrucosa.
RET: CZECH REPUBLIC: CENTRAL
BOHEMIA— Český Šternberk, Vrábov Hill,
15.vii.2006 Dr. Jan Borovička 8 (RET 403-1,
nrITS seq'd.). SOUTH
BOHEMIA—Losí Blato Nature Reserve,
3.x.2006 J. Borovička 27 (RET 404-3,
Bréde, Chateau La Sauque, 15.ix.1985 Rémy
LeTourneau s.n. [Tulloss 9-15-87-A]
Ochsenbachtal, "Glaswasen," 22.vii.1997 Andreas
Gminder 97/245 (RET 305-9, nrITS seq'd.);
Schwarzwald, Kaltenbronn [890 m], 10.viii.1996
A. Gminder 96/159 (in herb. Gminder; RET 305-8,
nrITS & nrLSU seq'd.).
BAYERN—Bayerisches Wald Nat. Pk.,
Klosterfilz, ca. SA Oswald, 18.x.1987 N.
Arnold s.n. [C. Bas "(4)"] (L).
MUNICIPALITY—1/3 of way towards head of
Mørke fjord on E side at basalt dike, 28.viii.1998
Torbjørn Borgen TB 98.193 (RET 294-7, nrITS
seq'd.); 1±km E of S part of head of
Equaluit fjord, at main river, 8.viii.1998 T.
Borgen TB 98.085 (RET 294-10, nrITS seq'd.).
FLEVOLAND—'t Spijk, 11.ix.1980 J.
Schreurs s.n. (L 980. 30 363).nbsp;
ca. 3.viii.1974 R. van Crevel s.n.
(L 973.281 337).
UTRECHT—btwn. Laren & Baarn, Hotel
de Witte Bergen, 16.ix.1951 R. A. Maas Geesteranus
7866 (L 951.152 263).
OPPLAND—Vs gs hd., Sjodalsvannet
[MP 967 235. 1618II], 4.viii.1982 Jens Stordal
21508 (O). SOGN OG
[UTMWGS84 LN 857, 838], 23.viii.1999
Hans Myhre s.n. [Tulloss 8-23-99-B] (O 63281;
RET 310-6, albino, nrLSU seq'd.).
SMÅLAND—Fremsjö, valley SW of
Bösseberg and Dullaberg, 1.ix.1976 M. Moser
Degerberget, 4.viii.2010 Irene Andersson s.n.
(RET 451-2, nrITS seq'd.).
BERN—La Chaux d'Abel,
15.ix.1969 Huijsman 136 (L 955.239 051).
["quad 2066"], 4.ix.1990 F. Müller 0409-90 Mü 3
(NMLU). ZUG—Zug, 10.ix.1992
Carmine Lavorato 920910-24 (in herb. C. Lavorato;
RET 078-8, nrITS seq'd.).
ENGLAND—Cumbria - Ambleside, 10.ix.1988
Aaron Norarevian & Geoffrey G. Kibby s.n.
[Tulloss 9-10-88-B] (RET 108-9). Dorset -
Beaulieu, New Forest, 13.ix.1988 B. McAdoo,
R. Phillips & R. E. Tulloss 9-13-88-B
SCOTLAND—Highlands & Islands
Reg. - Glen Affric, Affric River Pk., s.d. R. E.
Tulloss 9-5-88-A (RET 142-6); Glen Affric, W of
Dog Falls Pk., Benevean Dam, 5.ix.1988 G. G. Kibby
s.n. [Tulloss 9-5-88-G] (RET 142-1), s.n.
[Tulloss 9-5-88-H] (RET 108-3), Rhoda Roper &
R. E. Tulloss 9-5-88-F (RET 141-9), Tulloss et al.
9-5-88-O (RET 141-10), Ray Fatto s.n. [Tulloss
9-5-88-N] (RET 108-6); Glen Affric, Caledonian
Pinewood Res., 5.ix.1988 R. E. Tulloss 9-5-88-B
(RET 142-5), A. Norarevian s.n. [Tulloss 9-5-88-C]
In the same region, while
A. sinicoflava Tulloss
has been mistaken for A. fulva in the past,
now that the former has been described and
illustrated, it should be relatively easy to
separate from the "fulvoid" taxa with the unaided
Each spore data set is intended to comprise a set of measurements from a single specimen made by a single observer;
and explanations prepared for this site talk about specimen-observer pairs associated with each data set.
Combining more data into a single data set is non-optimal because it obscures observer differences
(which may be valuable for instructional purposes, for example) and may obscure instances in which
a single collection inadvertently contains a mixture of taxa.