Fruiting bodies of Amanita fritillaria are small to medium-sized, sometimes large. The cap is 40 - 100 (-120) mm wide, convex to applanate, greyish, brownish grey to brownish, darker over disc, innately fibrillose, and densely covered with dark grey to blackish, farinose, verrucose to felty volval remnants; the cap's margin is smooth and non-appendiculate; and the flesh is white.
The gills are free, crowded, and white; the short gills are attenuate.
The stem is 50 - 100 × 6 - 15 mm, subcylindric or attenuate upwards, with a surface that is white to dirty white and covered with greyish to grey squamules; the stipe's basal bulb is 10 - 25 (-30) mm wide, subglobose to ventricose, and has its upper part covered with dark grey to blackish, verrucose, floccose to farinose volval remnants. The ring is membranous, with an upper surface that is whitish to greyish to grey and a lower surface that is greyish to grey, or sometimes brownish.
The spores measure 7.0 - 9.0 (-12.0) × (5.0-) 5.5 - 7.0 (-8.5) µm and are broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid and amyloid. Clamps are not present at the bases of basidia.
This species was originally described from India. It is widely distributed in China and also reported from Singapore.—Zhu L. Yang
The editors of this site owe a great debt to Dr. Cornelis Bas
whose famous cigar box files of Amanita nomenclatural information
gathered over three or more decades were made available to RET for computerization
and make up the lion's share of the nomenclatural information presented on this site.
Zhang et al. (2004), Key Lab. Biodivers. Biogeogr., Kunming Inst. Bot., Yunnan, China
Corner and Bas. 1962. Persoonia 2: 265, pl. 3c, figs. 21-23.
Z. L. Yang. 1997. Biblioth. Mycol. 170: 196, figs. 164, 166-167.
Z. L. Yang. 2000. Mycotaxon 75: 120-121.
Z. L. Yang, T. H. Li and X. L. Wu. 2001. Fungal Diversity 6: 151-152.
Z. L. Yang. 2002a. Mycotaxon 83: 68-69.
The following text may make multiple use of each data field.
The field may contain magenta text presenting data from a type study
and/or revision of other original material cited in the protolog of the present taxon.
Macroscopic descriptions in magenta are a combination of data from the protolog and
additional observations made on the exiccata during revision of the cited original
The same field may also contain black text, which is data from a revision of the present
taxon (including non-type material and/or material not cited in the protolog).
Paragraphs of black text will be labeled if further subdivision of
this text is appropriate.
Olive text indicates a specimen that has not been
thoroughly examined (for example, for microscopic details) and marks other places in the text
where data is missing or uncertain.
The following material not directly from the protolog of the present taxon and not cited as the work of Dr. Z. L. Yang or another researcher is based upon original research by R. E. Tulloss.
NOTE: Spore measurements from papers by Z. L. Yang use his "Times New Roman" face for "Q"
and "Q'"—respectively, "Q" and "Q."
Yang (2002a): [20/1/1] 7.0 - 8.5 × (5.5-) 6.0 - 6.5 μm, (Q = 1.16 - 1.30 (-1.34); Q' = 1.24 ± 0.06), hyaline, colorless, smooth, thin-walled, amyloid, broadly ellipsoid, rarely ellipsoid; apiculus proportionately small; contents not recorded; color in deposit not recorded.
RET (from Indian material): [60/3/2] (6.8-) 7.2 - 9.5 (-11.0) × (5.5-) 6.0 - 8.0 (-8.5) μm, (L = 7.8 - 8.8 μm; L' = 8.2 μm; W = 6.4 - 6.7 μm; W' = 6.6 μm; Q = (1.05-) 1.14 - 1.39 (-1.51); Q = 1.19 - 1.32; Q' = 1.24), colorless, hyaline, smooth, thin-walled, amyloid to strongly amyloid, subglobose to broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid, infrequently globose, sometimes expanded at one end, often adaxially flattened; apiculus sublateral to subapical, truncate-conic, proportionately small; contents monoguttulate; color in deposit not reported.
Solitary or in small groups or gregarious. China: At 650 - 2800 m elev. In coniferous and broadleaved forests with Pinus spp. (e.g., P. yunnanensis and P. kesiya var. langbianensis) and members of the Fagaceae. Himachal Pradesh, India: At 1600 m elev. In mixed forest including Cornus capitata, Pinus roxburghii, P. wallichiana, Quercus incana, and Rhododendrom arboreum. Uttarakhand, India: On humicolous soil, under Cedrus deodara, with other nearby trees including Q. leucotricophora and R. arboreum.
from Corner & Bas (1962): INDIA: ASSAM—Khasia,former colonial region, 18.ix.1850 Pomranz 35 (holotype, in herb. Hooker => K).
from Yang (1997):
GUIZHOU—Tongren Prefecture - Jiangkou Co., Heiwanhe, 2.vii.1988 Z. L. Yang 71 (HKAS 20713).
SICHUAN—Chengdu (prefecture level) City - Pujiang Co., Datang, 25.vi.1985 M. S. Yuan 1007 (HKAS 15840); 5.ix.1986 M. S. Yuan 1291 (HKAS 18253). Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture - Unkn. Co., Gonggashan, [parts in each of three counties—Kanding, Luding, and Jiulong], 17.vii.1982 Y. Xuan s.n. (HKAS 9753). Guangyuan (prefecture level) City - Qingchuan Co., Xinguang, 5.ix.1985 M. S. Yuan 1076 (HKAS 15899).
YUNNAN—Baoshan (prefecture level) City - Changning Co., unkn. loc., 26.viii.1991 K. K. Chen 232 (HKAS 23554).
Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture - Lufeng Co., Yongyuan, 4.vii.1978 Shengfangzhan 786073 (HKAS 4489).
Kunming (prefecture level) City - Unkn. Distr., Dapuji, 11.viii.1941 C. C. Cheo 8173 (HMAS 4173), 20.vii.1942 W. F. Chiu 8170 (HMAS 4170); Unkn. Distr., Jindian, 11.vii.1991 K. K. Chen 181 (HKAS 23387), 4.viii.1995 M. Wang 5 (HKAS 32512); Unkn. Distr., Yu Quan Gong Yuan (Jade Spring Pk.), Heilongtan (Black Dragon Pool) [25°08'40" N/ 102°44'57" E, 2000 m], 19.vii.1991 Z. L. Yang 1096 (HKAS 24845); Xishan Distr., unkn. loc., 11.vii.1976 M. Zang 2708 (HKAS 3490).
Pu'er Prefecture - Jingdong Yi Autonomous Co., Fenghuangshan, 25.viii.1991 G. Song 303 (HKAS 24174), 304 (HKAS 24172), 25.viii.1991 Z. L. Yang 1634 (HKAS 24195); Jinggu Dai and Yi Autonomous Co., Yongpiang, 22.viii.1991 Z. L. Yang 1623 (HKAS 24178).
from Yang (2000): CHINA: JIANGSU—Nanjing (sub-provincial) City - former city of Nanjing, Linggusi, 24.v.1936 S. H. Ou 176 (formerly "IBN 1246"; BPI 750996, CUP-CH 152, as "A. spissa"); former city of Nanjing, Linggusi woods, 28.vi.1936 H. N. Shen 308 (formerly "IBN 2098"; BPI 750870, as "A. spreta"); former city of Nanjing, unkn. loc., 22.vi.1933 S. C. Teng 2437 (formerly "IBN 5483"; BPI 750990 & 750999, as "A. spissa"), 12.vii.1936 K. L. Teng 2452 (formerly "IBN 5787"; BPI 750995 & 751047, as "A. spissa"), 6.vii.1937 S. C. Li 230 (formerly "IBN" s.n.; BPI 750871, as "A. spissa").
from Yang (2001):
HAINAN—Changjiang Li Autonomous Co. - Bawangling, 24.v.1988 G. Y. Zheng s.n. (HMIGD 14591, as "Amanita spissacea in Bi et al. (1997)). Ledong Li Autonomous Co. - Jianfengling, 3.ix.1999 X. L. Wu 11 (HKAS 34101), 20.viii.1999 M. S. Yuan 4354 (HKAS 34563).
from Yang (2002a): CHINA: JILIN—Baishan (prefecture level) City - Fusong Co., Mt. Changbai, s.d. Z. X. Xie 8200755 (IFP).
RET: INDIA: HIMACHAL PRADESH—Shimla Distr. - Chadwick Fall, 28.vii.1984 T. N. Lakhanpal & A. Kumar s.n. (BPI 71981; HPUB 1140, as “Amanita berkeleyi”).
UTTARAKHAND—Garhwal - Pauri Distr., Dandapani, 20.viii.1993 V. K. Bhatt & R. P. Bhatt s.n. (GUH M-20055, as “A. rubescens”: RET 300-1).
Corner and Bas (1962): "Eaten with
relish and immediately on sight by monkeys.
The director of the Kew Herbarium kindly enabled
us to study the type specimen of A.
fritillaria.... It is a dried, half
specimen with many, small blackish remnants of the
volva on the brown pileus. These remnants
are more or less conical over the center of the
pileus and pass via flattened conical warts into
smaller patches near the margin. Warts and
patches appear to consist of erect chains of
mainly ellipsoid, dark brown cells, similar to
those in the Malayan material described [as
A. fritillaria f. malayensis]...,
but somewhat smaller. There is no striking
difference in structure of the volva between the
Malayan and the Indian material.
"The base of the stipe of the type is incomplete,
and neither Berkeley’s description nor J. D.
Hooker’s watercolor drawing (of which recently a
copy was presented to the Rijksherbarium, Leiden)
provide any information about the remnants of the
volva at the base of the stipe.
"The upper part of the cuticle of the type consists
of gelatinized, thin, radial hyphae. The
spores (Corner and Bas
(1962): Fig. 23)
are amyloid and of about the same size as those of
the collection from Singapore [A. fritillaria f. malayensis], but
more ellipsoid, viz. 7.4 - 8.6 × 5.6 - 7.0 µ and
broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid (length-breadth
ratio 1.2 - 1.5, average 1.3 - 1.35).
"Judging from Hooker’s drawing, the pileus of the
type was rather pale, gray, the stipe pale gray,
and streaked with dark gray, and the ring gray and
"From the foregoing it is clear that the up till
now insufficiently known A. fritillaria belongs to
section Validae and is very similar to Corner’s
’Amanita 5b‘. ....
"From A. pilosella Corner & Bas, the
present species differs by the viscid cuticle
without hair-like elements and the larger
spissacea Imai from Japan is very similar,
but seems to have a more floccose stipe and flat
and larger patches on the pileus. Moreover,
the remnants of the volva on the base of the stipe
"Compare also the species, Amanita species 1 [on
this site Amanita sp-Corner-&-Bas-1],
which may be another form or variety of A.
This taxon was originally described from what is
now the state of Assam, India. It is now
known also from China and other northern states of
considered this very similar to, if not identical
to A. spissacea of Japan.
—Zhu L. Yang and R. E. Tulloss
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