The cap of A. floridana is roughly 50 mm wide, planar, dull,
slightly viscid when wet, with a closely striate margin
(40% of the radius). The cap is avellaneous with a
blackish center. The flesh is white, very thin, and
unchanging when cut or bruised. The volva is absent.
The gills are free,
inserted, crowded, milk white, unchanging when cut or
bruised, and ventricose. The short gills are abruptly
The stem is 40 × 5 - 15
mm, white, markedly narrowing upward, smooth, glabrous,
and exannulate. The broadly saccate volva is only
attached at the very base of the stem, and is tough,
membranous, ample, dirty white on exterior, and white on
The spores measure (11.8-) 12.0 - 15.5 (-17.0) × (5.8-) 6.5 -
8.5 (-10.5) µm and are elongate to cylindric
(occasionally ellipsoid) and inamyloid. Clamps are
occasional at the bases of basidia.
Amanita floridana was
described from Florida (USA). It is unusual in sect. Vaginatae
for its extremely narrow spores. However, this is not a
sufficient reason to determine a very narrow-spored
member of the section as A. floridana. There are
a number of other such taxa (mostly undescribed) in the
subtropics of the Americas and in African tropical
As far as is known to Tulloss, this
species has not been reported since its original
description. New collections are of considerable
potential interest. Tulloss is very interested in
well-annotated, well-dried material of any species of
sect. Vaginatae with elongate to cylindric
spores.—R. E. Tulloss & L. Possiel.
≡Amanita floridana (Murrill) Dav. T. Jenkins comb. inval.1986. Amanita N. Amer.: 66. [Lacking full and direct reference to basionym. ICBN §33.2]
The editors of this site owe a great debt to Dr. Cornelis Bas
whose famous cigar box files of Amanita nomenclatural information
gathered over three or more decades were made available to RET for computerization
and make up the lion's share of the nomenclatural information presented on this site.
The following text may makes multiple use of each data field.
The field may contain magenta text representing a type study
The same field may also contain black text, which will represent a revision of the
species by Tulloss. Paragraphs of black text will be labeled if further subdivision of
this text is appropriate.
Olive text indicates a specimen that has not been
thoroughly examined (for example, for microscopic details) and marks other places in the text
where data is missing or uncertain.
The following is based on the original research of R. E. Tulloss.
50 mm wide, avellaneous [or grayish?] with blackish disc, paler toward margin planar, dull, glabrous, slightly viscid when wet; context white, unchanging when cut or bruised, very thin; margin closely striate (0.4R), straight, "fertile," entire; universal veil absent; pileipellis thin, separable.
double click in markup mode to edit.
free, inserted, crowded, milk white, unchanging when cut or bruised, ventricose, about 7± mm broad, with entire edge; lamellulae abruptly truncate.
40 × 5 - 15 mm, white, unchanging when cut or bruised, markedly narrowing upward ("peg-shaped"), smooth, glabrous; context unrecorded; exannulate; universal veil as broadly saccate volva (prior to sectioning suggesting the volva of "[?Volvariella] volvacea" (or, perhaps, Murrill intended to write "[Amanita] volvata"?), attached only at very base of stipe, tough, membranous, ample, dirty-white on exterior, white on interior, with three broadly acute lobes, glabrous, 25 × 25 mm, with limbus internus closely encircling stipe base, attached one-quarter to one-third of distance from stipe base to top of volval limb, upright, thin, white, well-preserved in exsiccatum of holotype, 5+ mm high, slightly lobed.
Odor absent. Taste mild.
50 - 80 µm thick, with colorless suprapellis 10 - 20 µm thick of gelatinized and partially gelatinized hyphae, with orange-yellow to yellow-orange subpellis 40 - 60 µm thick of predominantly ungelatinized hyphae; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 2.4 - 7.7 µm wide, branching occasionally, densely packed vertically, dominantly strongly radially oriented; vascular hyphae not observed.
filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 3.8 - 10.2 µm wide, branching, singly and in fascicles, plentiful, forming open lattice; acrophysalides plentiful, thin-walled, clavate to subcylindric (e.g., 99 × 33 µm), terminal (at least often), single (at least frequently); vascular hyphae not observed.
bilateral, divergent, not rehydratable in holotype.
rarely rehydratable in holotype—only scattered cells characterizable with any confidence, "ramose to slightly inflated ramose" per Jenkins (1979: 179); with basidia arising from uninflated and partially inflated hyphal segments (less than 10 such cells viewable in mounts examined); clamps present per Jenkins (1979: 179).
[Note: If clamps can be demonstrated, then this is probably a species of Amanita sect. Caesareae that lost its annulus prior to Murrill's examination of the material.]
mostly collapsed or destroyed in holotype; 31 - 45+ × 11.7 - 13.0+ µm, up to 55 × 20 µm per Jenkins (1979: 179), 4-sterigmate, with sterigmata up to 3.5 × 1.5 µm; clamps present ["occasional" per Jenkins (1986: 66)].
[Note: Once again, Jenkins reports clamps; however, RET could not confirm.]
longitudinally acrophysalidic; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 2.5 - 7.6 µm wide, branching, rather common in interior, dominating near exterior surface; acrophysalides strongly dominant in interior, up to 215 × 44 µm, thin-walled; vascular hyphae not observed; clamps not observed.
On pileus: absent. On stipe base, exterior surface: although having some gaps, rather more closely packed than in many species of sect. Vaginatae; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 1.9 - 7.6 µm wide, partially gelatinized, singly or in unusually broad fascicles, with many fascicles longitudinally arranged, some fascicles and single hyphae at other angles; inflated cells not observed; vascular hyphae not observed. On stipe base, interior: slightly gelatinized and collapsed in holotype; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 2.5 - 9.5 µm wide, branching, singly and in fascicles, interwoven in open lattice structure, plentiful, locally dominant (especially near exterior surface); inflated cells unevenly distributed, rather common to locally dominant away from exterior surface, pyriform to subpyriform to subglobose (up to 79 × 65 µm) or clavate (up to 97 × 39 µm), more frequently clavate toward inner surface, thin(?)-walled, with many collapsed inflated cells noted in mounting liquid (possibly from surface of limbus internus formerly periclinal to edges of lamellae); vascular hyphae not observed; clamps not observed. On stipe base, inner surface: thin gelatinized layer of tissue like that in interior (including collapsed inflated cells or "craters" left by completely gelatinized inflated cells), with locally common longitudinally oriented fascicles of filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae partially to extensively gelatinized and at times no more than one hyphal diameter thick.
from type study of Jenkins (1979): [-/-/1]
(12.5-) 13.3 - 13.7 (-14.1) × 7.0 - 7.8 (-8.2) μm, (Q = 1.67 - 2.00; Q' = 1.76),
hyaline, thin-walled, nonamyloid, elongate to cylindric, often adaxially flattened; apiculus sublateral, cylindric; contents guttulate;
color in deposit not recorded.
type study of RET: [40/1/1] (11.8-) 12.0 - 15.5 (-17.0) × (5.8-) 6.5 - 8.5 (-10.5) µm, (L = 13.7 µm; W = 7.4 µm; Q = (1.57-) 1.59 - 2.31 (-2.41); Q = 1.86), hyaline, colorless, thin-walled, smooth, inamyloid, elongate to cylindric, occasionally ellipsoid, occasionally expanded at one end, occasionally subfusiform, rarely subsigmoid; apiculus sublateral, prominent, subcylindric; contents granular; color in deposit unknown.
Solitary. In rich soil, at base of long-needled Pinus sp. in grove of Quercus.
U.S.A.: FLORIDA—Alachua Co. - Gainesville, University of Florida campus, Flavet Village, 5.viii.1948 W. A. Murrill F 21484 (holotype, FLAS).
from type study of Jenkins (1979):
U. S. A.: FLORIDA— Alachua Co. - Gainesville,
1948 W. A. Murrill s.n. (holotype, FLAS).
The single specimen of the holotype is the only known specimen of this species. At present, the holotype consists of half that specimen. The whereabouts of the remainder of the basidiome is unknown to me. [F?, FH?, MICH?] The tissues of the lamellae were in poor condition when I examined this material (1998). Where indicated, I have included data from Jenkins’ type study of twenty years earlier; the specimen was probably in better condition at that time.
In his discussion of the present species in its protolog, Murrill begins by comparing the pileus of A. floridana to A. vaginata sensu auct., but goes on to make the comparison of this species to "volvacea" [sic?]. The most similar name in Amanita is A. volvata of section Amidella (an odd choice); however, Murrill may have been referring to Volvariella volvacea. The pileus of the latter does have a dark disc and is tan beyond the disc. He also makes a comparison to a species of section Validae—A. porphyria, which must be to convey something about the cap color; otherwise, the latter species has very little in common with A. porphyria. These two comparisons are not to be found in the original field notes.
An oddity in the field notes is that the terms "grayish" and "avellaneous" are both applied to the pileus color away from the disc.
The fact that the stipe is said to be strongly attenuated upward (and is so depicted in a sketch in the field notes) suggests that the specimen did not develop normally and that, more typically, the species may have a proportionately longer stipe.
There are few known species of Amanita section Vaginatae that combine an exannulate stipe and elongate to cylindric spores. In addtion to the present taxon, there is one other taxon:
Amanita flammeola Pegler & Piearce - This brightly colored African taxon (cap ranges from yellow to orange-yellow, and fades almost to white with age and exposure) can easily be segregated from the present taxon microscopically because of its unusual pileipellis (see A. flammeola).
It may be that the holotype of A. floridana is a specimen of Amanita spretella (Murrill) Murrill (1948)—a species of section Caesareae—that lost its partial veil. The two taxa appear very similar except for the annulus of the latter and the fact that the lower half of its stipe is described as a "delicate rosy-cream." Jenkins (1986) gives the spore data for A. spretella as 11.7 - 13.3 × 6.6 - 7.8 µm, with Q = 1.66, based on his study of the holotype (FLAS). A sporograph comparison of the two taxa follows.
It appears that it would be wise to update Jenkins' type study of A. spretella.
—R. E. Tulloss
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