1. Amanita farinosa, Hopewell Twp., Mercer Co., New Jersey, U.S.A.
Amanita farinosa is a rather small species of the eastern U.S.A. and southeastern Canada. It is rather common, but may be overlooked because of its small size. A collector may sometimes, mistakenly, originally identify material of this species as belonging in Amanita section Vaginatae because of the color and long marginal striations of the cap; however, the present species has a distinct, though small, basal bulb on its stipe and must be placed in Amanitasection Amanita.
Its cap is a shade of brownish gray with the disc sometimes darker and browner than the rest; it has a strongly striate margin. The volva is distributed over the 30 - 55 mm wide cap as brownish gray powder.
The gills are narrowly adnate, close to subcrowded, white to off-white, 4 - 7 mm broad and, occasionally exhibit forking. The short gills are truncate to rounded truncate and occasionally attach to the stipe rather than to the cap margin.
The exannulate stipe is 45 - 60 × 4.5 - 8 mm. The small bulb (5 - 8 × 8 - 9 mm) bears a powdery area of universal veil on its upper surface that is usually quite distinct.
The spores measure (6.0-) 6.5 - 8.8 (-10.5) × (5.0-) 5.5 - 7.0 (-9.0) µm and subglobose to ellipsoid (infrequently globose or elongate) and inamyloid. Clamps are not present at bases of basidia.
This species is commonly found in forests with oak, beech, or hickory. Its known range extends from southeastern Canada to cloud forests of the Cordillera Talamanca of Costa Rica.
The editors of this site owe a great debt to Dr. Cornelis Bas
whose famous cigar box files of Amanita nomenclatural information
gathered over three or more decades were made available to RET for computerization
and make up the lion's share of the nomenclatural information presented on this site.
Olive text indicates a specimen that has not been
thoroughly examined (for example, for microscopic details) and marks other places in the text
where data is missing or uncertain.
The following material not directly from the protolog of the present taxon is based upon
original research by R. E. Tulloss.
PILEUS: (17.5-) 31 - 54 mm wide, gray, pale brownish
gray to brownish gray, more brown or tan (6B2) over
disc, sometimes becoming very pallid at margin, at
first subhemispheric with flattened disc, then convex
to plano convex and often somewhat depressed in disc
and with decurved margin, shiny on disc (where
universal veil is absent); context white to
pale grayish white, sordid below pileipellis,
unchanging when cut or bruised, 3-
- 4 mm thick at
stipe, thinning evenly for innermost third to half of
radius, then membranous to margin; margin
strongly striate (0.5-0.55R), not appendiculate;
universal veil as pulverulence, covering
entire surface at first, sometimes with additional
small irregular floccose warts, detersile, gray to
brownish gray to pale brownish gray (5C2-3),
unchanging when bruised.
narrowly adnate, occasionally with faint and short decurrent line on stipe apex, close to subcrowded, white to off-white in mass and in side view, unchanging when cut or bruised, occasionally forking or anastomosing, 3.5 - 7 mm broad, with margin minutely flocculose and white; lamellulae truncate to rounded truncate, occasionally attached to stipe rather than pileus margin.
(16.5-) 46 - 58 × (2-) 4.5 - 8 mm, white, browning
slightly from handling, cylindric or narrowing
upward, flaring at apex, entirely pubescent to
pulverulent at first, eventually satiny and finely
striatulate; bulb 5 - 8 × (3-) 8 - 9 mm,
subnapiform, subabrupt, often noticeably compressed
vertically; context white to whitish,
sometimes slightly grayish or watersoaked brownish in
bottom of bulb, unchanging when cut or bruised, with
larva tunnels concolorous, stuffed to hollow, with
stuffing comprising rather loosely packed white
cottony material in 1 - 2 mm wide central
cylinder; exannulate; universal veil
as ring of grayish pulverulence at top of basal
bulb or sometimes over most of bulb, sometimes
forming lumps and patches, more often as continuous
appressed smear of grayish powder.
Odor lacking. Taste not recorded.
L-tyrosine spot test for tyrosinase - positive throughout basidiome. Paracresol spot test for tyrosinase - positive throughout basidiome except (occasionally) in upper portion of pileus context. Syringaldazine spot test for laccase - negative throughout basidiome or with ?? postive in ??. Test vouchers: Tulloss 8-2-85-B, 11-30-85-B, 7-16-87-F, and 6-25-95-H.
composite of all data from material revised by RET and CRC:
[180/9/9] (6.0-) 6.5 - 8.5 (-10.5) × (5.2-) 5.5 - 7.0 (-9.0)
µm, (L = 6.7 - 7.9 (-8.0) µm; L’ = 7.3 µm;
W = 5.7 - 6.4 (-6.5) µm; W’ = 6.1 µm; Q = (
1.03-) 1.08 - 1.37 (-1.47); Q = 1.15 - 1.27 (-1.31);
Q’ = 1.21), hyaline, colorless, thin-walled, smooth,
inamyloid, subglobose to broadly ellipsoid, occasionally
ellipsoid, occasionally globose, often adaxially flattened;
apiculus sublateral, cylindric; contents
monoguttulate; white in deposit.
Solitary to subgregarious. Costa Rica: At 2350± m elev. In cloud forest, with Quercus copeyensis, Q. rapurahuensis, and Q. seemannii. Edo. México, México: At 1750± m elev. In open, heavily utilized Pinus-Quercus forest. Mississippi: ?. New Jersey: In damp duff and leaf litter over loamy clay over red shale under Fagus grandifolia in mixed woods also containing Cornus florida, Sassafras albidum, Nyssa sylvatica, Quercus spp., and Carya spp. New York: In an area of Sphagnum, Betula, Acer, and Quercus. West Virginia: At 990 - 1275± m elev. In mixed forest containing Picea abies, B. lutea f., Tsuga canadensis, Rhododendron sp., Alnus and Sphagnum bogs or in deciduous forest with Prunus, Acer, and F. grandifolia or under F. grandifolia in mixed woods also containing Quercus spp. and Carya spp.]
COSTA RICA: SAN JOSÉ—Ctn. Dota - San Gerardo de Dota no. 1 , 5± km SW of Cerro de la Muerte, Albergue de Montaña Savegre (Cabinas Chacón) [9°33’2” N/ 83°48’27” W, 2200 to ca. 2350 m], 25.vi.1995 Kris Shanks s.n. [R. E. Tulloss 6-25-95-H] (RET 153-10; SJU).
MÉXICO—Mpio. Zincantepec, Parq. Estatal
Nanchititla, ca. cabañas
[18°53’09” N/ 100°21’38” W], 7.vii.1996 A.
Montoya Esquivel 1552 (RET 260-7; TLXM).
Middlesex Co. - East Haddam, Devil's Hopyard St.
Pk. [41°28'32" N/ 72°20'25" W, 72 m], 24.viii.2007
Sandy Shiene s.n. [Tulloss 8-24-07-H1] (RET 439-5),
R. E. Tulloss 8-24-07-E (RET 439-3); Salmon River
St. For. (West), 3.ix.2011 Bill Yule s.n.
[Tulloss 9-3-11-E] (RET 491-4), 4.ix.2011
Paula DeSanto s.n. [Tulloss 9-4-11-E]
(RET 492-6, nrLSU seq'd.).
INDIANA—Montgomery Co. - Waveland,
Shades St. Pk. [39.9378° N/ 87.0894° W, 223 m],
28.viii.2012 Stephen Russell 3570
(RET 534-5), 29.viii.2012 S. Russell 3714
(RET 534-10, nrLSU seq'd.).
MISSISSIPPI—Jackson Co. - Pascagoula
River Wildlife Mgmt. Area, 16.vii.1987 D. C.
& R. E. Tulloss 7-16-87-F (RET 005-7).
NEW JERSEY—Mercer Co. - Hopewell Twp.,
ff Carter Rd., woods behind AT&T/Lucent
research labs [40°21’39” N/ 74°43’29” W, 63 m],
29.vii.1980 R. E. Tulloss 7-29-80-B (RET 393-4),
19.viii.1981 R. E. Tulloss 8-19-81-A
(RET 322-1),21.vii.1982 R. E.
Tulloss 7-21-82-D (RET 472-8), 28.viii.1982
R. E. Tulloss 8-28-82-E (RET 322-1), 23.ix.1987
R. E. Tulloss 9-23-87-E (RET
Morris Co. - Mendham, Meadowood Twp. Pk.
[40°47'31" N/ 74°38'43" W, 214 m], 27.vii.1986
M. A. King 7-27-86-K (RET 079-4).
NEW YORK—Orange Co. - ca. West Point,
Harvard Black Rock For., 3.ix.1989 W. Bakaitis
PENNSYLVANIA—Clarion Co. - Miola-Bigley,
St. Game Lands No. 72, [41.2302° N / 79.2862° W,
368 m], 6.viii.2011 NAMA2011 participant s.n.
[Tulloss 8-6-11-E] (RET 478-3).
NORTH CAROLINA—Unkn. Co. - RCF,
Wildacres 2015 foray, 19.ix.2015 Garrett Taylor s.n.
[Tulloss 9-19-15-D] (RET 710-4).
SOUTH CAROLINA—Oconee Co. -
Seneca [34°46'09" N/ 82°57'55" W, 263 m],
30.xi.1985 M. A. King & R. E. Tulloss
11-30-85-B (RET 131-5).
TENNESSEE—Blount Co. - GSMNP, Cades
Cove, Gum Swamp, 6.vii.2006 E. Lickey s.n.
(TENN ??). Sevier
Co. - ca. Gatlinburg, GSMNP, Grotto Falls trailhead
[35.6752° N/83.4858° W, 780 m], 12.vii.2004
S. Tieken and R. E. Tulloss [Tulloss
7-12-04-P] (RET 375-6).
VIRGINIA—Augusta Co. - George Washington Nat. For., Todd Lake Campground [38°21'55" N/ 79°12'41" W, 610 m], 22.viii.1982 D. C. & R. E. Tulloss 8-22-82-B (RET ??).
WEST VIRGINIA—Preston Co. - Brookside, ix.1900 H. C. Beardslee s.n. (BPI). Randolph Co. - Monongahela Nat. For., Otter Creek Wilderness, 2.viii.1985 Linnea Gillman s.n. [R. E. Tulloss 8-2-85-B] (RET 201-8). Tucker Co. - Deer Run Tr., 3.viii.1992 R. E. Tulloss 8-3-92-D (RET 120-5); Monongahela Nat. For., Dolly Sods Picnic Area [38°58’13” N/ 79°21’34” W], 1.ix.1996 M. A., S. E. K. & R. E. Tulloss 9-1-96-A (RET 249-1).
[Note: Additional collections in SFSU—east and west coast variants.]
This is a small, delicate species. It is rather pale brownish-gray and has a deeply striate margin. It lacks an annulus, and its stipe terminates in a small bulb that has grayish or brownish gray powder of the universal veil appressed on its upper portion. From a quick look at the pileus, some collectors may judge this entity to be a relative of A. vaginata; however, the stipe is not totally elongating; and there is no sign of a volval sac on the small, but distinct bulb.
At the moment the Bakaitis collection from Orange
Co., New York, is not included in any compilation of
numerical data because it was anomalous in several
After multiple attempts, we have not been able to
derive an nrITs sequence from collections of this
species. This is probably due to
heterogeneity of the locus. We have also not
been able to obtain nrLSU sequences of the same
length that can be achieved from other amanitas
and presume that heterogeneity is the cause for
the problem with the latter locus.
—R. E. Tulloss and C. Rodríguez Caycedo
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"American Floury Amanita"
1. Amanita farinosa, Hopewell Twp., Mercer Co., New Jersey, U.S.A.
RET - (1) Hopewell Township, Mercer County, New Jersey, U.S.A.
Each spore data set is intended to comprise a set of measurements from a single specimen made by a single observer;
and explanations prepared for this site talk about specimen-observer pairs associated with each data set.
Combining more data into a single data set is non-optimal because it obscures observer differences
(which may be valuable for instructional purposes, for example) and may obscure instances in which
a single collection inadvertently contains a mixture of taxa.