The cap of this species is 33 - 45 mm wide and usually a vivid
yellow, sometimes orange-yellow, occasionally yellow with
an irregular orange area near or over the center, broadly
bell-shaped to convex to plano-convex. The flesh is up to
4 mm thick above the stem. The margin is nonstriate
(except possibly in age) and nonappendiculate. The volva
is absent or randomly distributed in crumb-like, floccose
warts; these are easily removed and yellow.
The gills are free, subcrowded to crowded, off-white to cream in mass, pale
cream in side view, up to 3 mm broad, with a white edge
despite the yellow pigment in the annulus.
The stem is up to 110 × 4
- 10 mm, white (except occasionally above the annulus),
narrowing upward, barely flaring at the apex, finely
fibrillose below the annulus, finely pruinose above the
annulus. The flesh of the stem is white, solid in part,
stuffed in part, with a central cylinder up to 4 mm wide.
The stipe's bulb is fusiform to ellipsoid to subclavate
to subnapiform and up to 20 × 13 mm. The annulus is
superior, small, skirt-like, pale yellow to yellow
(rarely whitish) and striate above. The lower side of the
annulus is smooth closer to the color of the volva of
which some remnants may remain below the annulus' edge.
The volva is yellow, friable, and often found in sparse
fragments around the bulb or on the lower stem.
Alternatively, the volva may take the form of a slight
limb at the base of the stem or may be difficult to
locate or left in the soil when the mushroom is
Amanita elongata has no distinct odor.
The spores measure (6.8-) 7.5 - 10.5 (-12.5) × (4.0-) 5.0 - 6.9 (-8.7) µm and are
ellipsoid (infrequently elongate, infrequently broadly
ellipsoid) and amyloid. Clamps are absent from bases of basidia.
This species can usually
be easily distinguished in the field from its probable
close relative Amanita flavoconia G. F. Atk. var. flavoconia
because of its white stem and its
often nearly pure yellow cap. The stem, however, may
infrequently have a pale yellow region above the annulus;
and the cap may infrequently have an irregular small area
of orange near the center or even be as strongly
orange-yellow as in the picture on the right, above. The
larger, narrower spores of A. elongata are the
deciding factor in determining these cases. The species
has been largely ignored in the literature,
The species is known from conifer
and oak forests in southeastern Canada at least as far
north as the Island of Newfoundland (boreal forest in
Gros Morne Nat. Pk.) and the northeastern USA at least as
far south as the eastern shore of the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland and the mountains of western South Carolina
(pine-oak forest). It may be more common in the northern
half of that range; I have found and been given a
number of collections from Maine and Newfoundland. Beech (Betula)
may also be a symbiont of this species.
The following text may make multiple use of each data field.
The field may contain magenta text presenting data from a type study
and/or revision of other original material cited in the protolog of the present taxon.
Macroscopic descriptions in magenta are a combination of data from the protolog and
additional observations made on the exiccata during revision of the cited original
The same field may also contain black text, which is data from a revision of the present
taxon (including non-type material and/or material not cited in the protolog).
Paragraphs of black text will be labeled if further subdivision of
this text is appropriate.
Olive text indicates a specimen that has not been
thoroughly examined (for example, for microscopic details) and marks other places in the text
where data is missing or uncertain.
The following material is derived from the protolog of the present species, original research of R. E. Tulloss, and the work of other researchers as indicated.
33 - 45 mm wide, vivid yellow to orange-yellow, occasionally yellow with some orange in area of disk, broadly campanulate to convex to plano-convex, tacky, dull; context ??, 4 mm thick at stipe, thinning evenly to the margin; margin nonstriate at first, occasionally becoming striate in age, nonappendiculate, incurved at first, later decurved; universal veil absent or in randomly distributed crumb-like floccose warts, detersile, yellow.
free, without decurrent line on stipe apex, subcrowded to crowded, off-white to cream in mass, pale cream in side view, with white edge (lens) even though annulus and stipe apex both yellow, 3 mm broad; lamellulae attenuate.
110 × 4 - 10 mm, white except sometimes yellow above annulus, unchanging when cut or bruised, narrowing upward, barely flaring at apex, finely fibrillose below annulus, finely pruinose above annulus; context white, unchanging when cut or bruised, stuffed below, solid above, with stuffed portion having 4 mm wide central cylinder; bulb fusiform to ellipsoid to subclavate to subnapiform, up to 20 × 13 mm; partial veil superior, small, skirt-like, pale yellow to yellow (infrequently white?) and striate on upper surface, underside deeper yellow than upper surface and smooth, eventually collapsing on stipe, with slightly thickened yellow edge; universal veil as easily dissociated friable fragments or slight limb, yellow, sometimes sparse, often left in substrate during collection.
from type study of Jenkins (1978a): [-/-/1] 7.8 - 9.4 × 5.5 - 6.2 μm, (Q = 1.42 - 1.71; Q' = 1.51), hyaline, thin-walled amyloid, ellipsoid to elongate, often adaxially flattened; apiculus sublateral, tuncate-conic; contents guttulate;
color in deposit not recorded.
Composite data from all material revised by RET: [133/7/7] (6.8-) 7.5 - 10.5 (-12.5) × (4.0-) 5.0 - 6.9 (-8.7) µm,
(L = 7.9 - 9.6 µm; L’ = 8.7 µm; W = 5.3 - 6.4 µm; W’ = 5.8 µm; Q = (1.21-) 1.33 - 1.70 (-1.81);
Q = 1.45 - 1.58; Q’ = 1.51), hyaline, colorless, with very thin walls, smooth, amyloid, ellipsoid to elongate, adaxially flattened, sometimes with one end expanded, occasionally “giant”; apiculus sublateral, cylindric; contents granular to monoguttulate with additional small granules; white in deposit.
Solitary to subgregarious.
Maine: In loam. New Jersey: In loam with Acer rubrum, Betula appalachiensis, Carya sp., and Fagus grandifolia.
Newfoundland & Labrador: In woods dominated by conifers on sandy soil with plentiful moss.
South Carolina: In red clay of mixed forest including A. rubrum, Carya ovata, Cornus florida, Ilex opaca, Juniperus virginiana, Quercus bicolor, Q. marilandica, Q. nuttallii, Pinus echinata, and palmetto.
from type study of Jenkins (1978a): U.S.A.: PENNSYLVANIA—Unkn. Co. - unkn. loc., vii.1907 E. B. Sterling s.n. (holotype, NY).
NEWFOUNDLAND & LABRADOR—Isl. of
Newfoundland - GMNP, McKenzies Brk., 4.x.2003
Isabelle Schmelzer s.n. [Tulloss 10-4-03-A]
(RET 370-6); GMNP, “Foray 5,” 18.ix.2004 Jack Green
s.n. [Tulloss 9-18-04-A] (HKAS; RET 384-5, nrITS & nrLSU
GMNP, lower Green Gardens Tr.,
2.ix.2005 Judy May & R. E. Tulloss 9-2-05-A
(RET 388-4); Sandy Pt. Isl., 27.vii.2003 A.
Voitk #3 (in herb. Dr. A. Voitk; RET 369-2).
CONNECTICUT—Litchfield Co. - Washington Twp., ca. Washington, Steep Rock Pk., 24.vii.1992 Lynn Payer s.n. [Tulloss 7-24-92-B] (RET 066-6)..
MAINE—Cumberland Co. - Falmouth, Atherton Woods, 12.viii.1990 Samuel S. Ristich s.n. [Tulloss 8-12-90-SSR1] (RET ??). Penobscot Co. - Orono, University of Maine, 10.viii.1991 NEMF91 foray participant s.n. [Tulloss 8-10-91-D] (RET ??), s.n. [Tulloss 8-10-91-G] (RET 031-6); Orono, County Rd. 13.viii.1983 M. A. King s.n. [Tulloss 8-13-83-D] (RET 105-9).
MARYLAND—Worcester Co. - 8 km W of Furnace Town Hist. Pk. on Forrest Rd., 14.vi.2006 L. T. Biechele s.n. (RET 391-1).
MASSACHUSETTS—Berkshire Co. - N. Adams, 16.viii.1986 Audrey & Neal Macdonald s.n. [Tulloss 8-16-86-I] (RET 079-7). Essex Co. - Boxford St. For., 8.ix.1990 Peabody Mus. of Salem foray participant s.n. [Tulloss 9-8-90-C] (RET 009-2).
NEW HAMPSHIRE—Cheshire Co. - Rhododendron St. Pk., 17.viii.1989 NEMF89 participant s.n. [Tulloss 8-17-89-A] (RET 246-1).
NEW JERSEY—Mercer Co. - Hopewell, off Carter Rd., woods behind AT&T/Lucent research labs [40°21’39” N/ 74°43’29” W, 63 m], 1.viii.1986 R. E. Tulloss 8-1-86-G (RET 137-10). Middlesex Co. - Jamesburg Twp., Jamesburg Twp. Pk., ca. Helmetta [40°23’07” N/ 74°25’48” W], 4.viii.1990 Florence Guberman s.n. [Tulloss 8-4-90-M] (RET 112-9). Monmouth Co. - ca. Roosevelt, Assunpink Wildlife Management Area [40°12’36” N/ 74°28’42” W], 8.ix.1999 M. A. & R. E. Tulloss 9-8-99-J (RET 296-6); Shark River Co. Pk. [40°12’18” N/ 74°05’44” W, 16 m], 19.viii.2011 L. K., M. A., O. C. & R. E. Tulloss & C. Rodríguez Caycedo [Tulloss] 8-19-11-I (RET 485-5). Morris Co. - Mendham, Meadowood Twp. Pk. [40°47'31" N/ 74°38'43" W, 214 m], 27.vii.1986 M.A. King s.n. [Tulloss 7-27-86-F] (RET 137-9).
NEW YORK—Dutchess Co. - ca. Stissing Mtn., viii?.1996 Peter Katsaros s.n. (RET 249-6).
OHIO—Hocking Co. - Old Man’s Cave St. Pk. 29.viii.1965 W. B. & V. G. Cooke 35552 (MICH).
SOUTH CAROLINA—Oconee Co. - Seneca [34°46'09" N/ 82°57'55" W, 263 m], 27.vi.1985 M. A. King & R. E. Tulloss 6 27 85-D (RET 055-2).
TENNESSEE—Blount Co. - GSMNP, Cades Cove, Loop Rd. 27.ix.2006 D. J. Lodge, E. B. Lickey & R. E. Tulloss 9-27-06-N (RET 396-10).
The following figure provides a comparison of sporographs for A. elongata and A. flavoconia:
What must have been hypomycized individuals were a part of Tulloss 8-10-91-D; and during the 1991 NEMF in Maine, a number of hypomycized individuals appeared on the display tables The yellow pigment of the pileus and of the volval patches at the stipe base was incorporated into the hypomycized basidiomes.
—R. E. Tulloss
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