1. Amanita egregia, ca. Paluma, Queensland, Australia. (Halling 6806)
2. Amanita egregia, Queensland, Australia.
The cap of A. egregia is 100 - 200
mm wide, convex at first, then planoconvex to slightly
depressed at the center, with a short sulcate-striate
margin (20±% of the radius in dried
material), and slightly incurved at first. The cap is
white when young, becoming pale brown over the disc, and
shading to cream at the margin in mature specimens. The
flesh is white. The volva is absent.
The gills are narrowly adnate,
close, and white. The short gills are truncate and
extending up to 50% of the radius from the margin.
The stem is 125 - 200 × 9 - 23 mm,
white, fibrillose or furfuraceous, and cylindric or
narrowing upward slightly. The flesh is white and
stuffed. The saccate volva is ample and loosely
The spores measure (7.0-) 9.1 -
11.5 (-12.8) × (8.0-) 8.4 - 10.1 (-11.6) µm and are
subglobose to broadly ellipsoid and inamyloid. Clamps are
present at bases of the basidia.
Amanita egregia was
originally described from the state of Queensland in
northeastern Australia. A number of other species of
stirps Hemibapha exist in this region, but not
all have been described to date. The presence of species
so similar to those of southeast Asia probably indicates
their migration over a land bridge. They now are
mycorrhizal with Eucalyptus as far as is known.
This set of species do not appear to have migrated much
beyond Queensland. More information on this group from
Australia would be very welcome (contact).
?=Amanita egreginus A. E. Wood. 1997. Austral. Syst. Bot. 10: 756, fig. 17(a-e).
non Amanita egregia sensu A. E. Wood. 1997. Austral. Syst. Bot. 10: 754, fig. 16(a-e).
The editors of this site owe a great debt to Dr. Cornelis Bas
whose famous cigar box files of Amanita nomenclatural information
gathered over three or more decades were made available to RET for computerization
and make up the lion's share of the nomenclatural information presented on this site.
The following text may make multiple use of each data field.
The field may contain magenta text presenting data from a type study
and/or revision of other original material cited in the protolog of the present taxon.
Macroscopic descriptions in magenta are a combination of data from the protolog and
additional observations made on the exiccata during revision of the cited original
The same field may also contain black text, which is data from a revision of the present
taxon (including non-type material and/or material not cited in the protolog).
Paragraphs of black text will be labeled if further subdivision of
this text is appropriate.
Olive text indicates a specimen that has not been
thoroughly examined (for example, for microscopic details) and marks other places in the text
where data is missing or uncertain.
The original macroscopic description has been supplemented from collectors notes deposited with the holotype. The type study and supplemental revision of non-type specimens are based on original research by Tulloss.
100 - 200 mm wide, white when young, becoming pale brown over disc shading to cream at margin in mature specimens, straw colored in exsiccata, convex at first, then planoconvex to slightly depressed at center; context white; margin short sulcate-striate (0.2±R in exsiccatum), slightly incurved at first; universal veil absent.
narrowly adnate, close, white; lamellulae truncate, extending up to 0.5R from margin.
125 - 200 × 9 - 23 mm, white, fibrillose or furfuraceous, cylindric or narrowing upward slightly; context white, stuffed; partial veil apical, large, pendent, membranous; universal veil as saccate volva, ample, loosely sheathing.
Odor neither "strong" nor "mushroom." Taste not recorded.
from type study of RET: 95 - 135 µm thick overall, comprising 20 - 35 µm thick colorless and extensively gelatinized suprapellis and 75 - 115 µm thick rather dense yellow-orange ungelatinized subpellis; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 0.9 - 6.0 µm wide, branching, single and in narrow vascicles, criss-crossed in open lattice structure when viewed from above; vascular hyphae 2.3 - 17.0 µm wide, infrequent, occasionally branching, sordid yellow to sordid orangish yellow.
from non-type material revised by RET: 80 - 190 µm thick; with suprapellis having form as in holotype, 30 - 130 µm thick; with subpellis having form as in holotype, 50 - 80 µm thick.
from type study of RET: filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 3.0 - 11.5 µm wide, branching, thin-walled, often single, occasionally in narrow fascicles, forming open lattice structure; acrophysalides thin-walled, narrowly clavate to fusiform to subcylindric to elongate, up to 254 × 31 µm; vascular hyphae not observed.
from type study of RET: bilateral, not rehydrating; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 1.4 - 5.2 µm wide, branching, apparently with some slightly inflated intercalary segments; vascular hyphae 2.3 - 13.3 µm wide, infrequent.
from non-type material revised by RET: bilateral; angle of divergence shallow; subhymenial base containing long narrow and usually intercalary cells up to 17.0 µm wide (e.g., 82 × 16.2 µm) curving in broad arc out of central stratum and plentiful rather frequently branching hyphae; terminal, divergent inflated cells occasional, of same form and dimension as intercalary inflated cells of subhymenial base; clamps plentiful and sometimes prominent in subhymenial base.
from type study of RET: not rehydrating even after extended soaking; apparently containing inflated cells in 2± layers.
from non-type material revised by RET: pseudoparenchymatous in some regions, narrow zone of frequently branching and short-segmented hyphae in less mature regions (e.g., Halling 6808), with one to two cells below longest basidia, with basidia arising from inflated cells (up to 15.0 × 12.0 µm) and short partially inflated to uninflated hyphal segments; clamps common.
from type study of RET: 32+ - 46+ × 9.7 - 13.3 µm, frequently yellow and refractive, with bases damaged even when apical portion well-preserved, 4-sterigmate, with sterigmata collapsed; clamps present, sometimes prominent, frequency unknown due to condition of exsiccatum.
from non-type material revised by RET: 37 - 61 × 9.4 - 12.6 µm, thin-walled, dominantly 4-, occasionaly 2-sterigmate, with sterigmata up to 7.0 × 2.3 µm; clamps and proliferated clamps unevenly distributed, locally plentiful, sometimes prominent.
from type study of RET: On pileus: scattered fragments similar to interior on stipe base. On stipe base, exterior surface: filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 1.6 - 4.6 µm wide, branching, colorless, often in sublongitudinally oriented fascicles, rather densely packed, but in thin layer [4 - 10(?) hyphal diameters thick], with some lens-shaped lacunae, locally partially gelatinized; vascular hyphae not observed. On stipe base, interior: filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 1.4 - 11.2 µm wide, branching, dominating, in dense tangle around inflated cells, single or in fascicles, sometimes with yellowish walls; inflated cells fragile (hence, difficult to observe), subglobose to subpyriform to ovoid to ellipsoid (up to 50 × 41 µm or larger) and clavate to narrowly clavate [e.g., 35 × 15.8 µm; possibly up to 104 × 31 µm, but interpretation uncertain due to state of tissues and presence of many open spaces among hyphae shaped like, but not containing, inflated cells], scattered, possibly sometimes in loose clusters locally, thin-walled; vascular hyphae scattered, infrequently common locally, 2.8 - 12.6 µm wide, loosely coiled, sinuous, with infrequent tight coils; no clamps observed (but few septa undamaged). On stipe base, inner surface: thin layer of collapsed and gelatinized tissue otherwise similar to that of interior.
from non-type material revised by RET: subglobose inflated cells of interior of limb may reach 52 × 47 µm.
from type study of RET: longitudinally acrophysalidic; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 1.3 - 9.2 µm wide, branching, occasionally having yellowish subrefractive walls, plentiful; acrophysalides dominant in interior, often rounded at base, occasionally yellowish, thin-walled, up to 121 × 23 µm; vascular hyphae 2.0 - 9.2 µm wide, infrequent to locally common, sinuous, occasionally branching, locally coiled or tangled.
from type study of RET: reduced to dark line on stipe before specimen dried.
from non-type material revised by RET: filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 2.0 - 4.8 µm wide, dominating, frequently branching, often in fascicles, tangled and interwoven in rather open lattice-like structure, with many of larger fascicles seemingly concentric with stipe, collapsing and gelatinizing at surfaces; inflated cells common to locally plentiful, clavate to narrowly ellipsoid to subcylindric to subfusiform to lozenge-shaped to ellipsoid to subpyriform, up to 54 × 22 µm, thin-walled, terminal singly; vascular hyphae 2.9 - 12.8 µm wide, infrequent to rare, sinuous, sordid yellow.
from type study of RET: [40/1/1] (9.3-) 9.4 - 11.5 (-12.8) × (8.0-) 8.4 - 10.1 (-11.6) µm, (L = 10.5 µm; W = 9.1 µm; Q = (1.05-) 1.10 - 1.25 (-1.27); Q = 1.16), subhyaline, faintly yellowish, with wall about 0.5 µm thick, smooth, inamyloid, subglobose to broadly ellipsoid, often adaxially flattened; apiculus sublateral, cylindric; contents multi- or monoguttulate; white in deposit.
composite of data from all material revised by RET: [120/5/4] (7.0-) 9.1 - 11.2 (-13.0) × (6.5-) 7.7 - 9.5 (-11.6) μm, (L = 9.6 - 10.6 μm; L’ = 10.1 μm; W = 8.2 - 9.1 μm; W’ = 8.9 μm; Q = (1.05-) 1.09 - 1.24 (-1.55); Q = 1.14 - 1.17; Q’ = 1.16, subhyaline, faintly yellowish, with wall about 0.5 µm thick, smooth, inamyloid, subglobose to broadly ellipsoid, often adaxially flattened; apiculus sublateral, cylindric; contents multi- or monoguttulate; white in deposit.
Spores from protolog of A. egregina: 10.5 - 12.0 (-13.5) × (8.4-) 9.3 - 10.5 (-11.1) μm; Q = 1.16. [Note: Insufficient data to create sporograph.]
In rows in open eucalypt forest, possibly remains of huge fairy ring.
from protolog of A. egregina: AUSTRALIA: QUEENSLAND—Nanango, 18.iv.1988 A. M. Young s.n. (holotype of A. egregina, in herb A. M. Young).
RET: AUSTRALIA: QUEENSLAND—City of Brisbane - Moggill, "university land," 4.ii.1954 J. E. C. Aberdeen 161 (holotype, K). Tablelands Region - former Shire of Mareeba, Davies Crk., 5.iii.1994 D. Arora A32 (RET 0136-7); ca. Kuranda on route to Davies Crk., 19.ii.1992 Reddell, R. E. Halling, M. Castellano [Halling 6818, ACIAR Epigeous Fung. Proj. E 4684] (PERTH? n.v.; NY 66253). Unkn. Region - on rd. to Paluma [S border of Paluma Range Nat. Pk.], N of Little Crystal Crk. [19°00'40" S/ 146°16'20" E], 18.ii.1992 M. Castellano, Reddell, R. E. Halling [Halling 6806, ACIAR Epigeous Fung. Proj. E 4673] (PERTH? n.v., NY).
The present species clearly belongs in Amanita stirps Hemibapha From the members of this group, the combination of whitish pileus, Q < 1.20, spore size (with 95% of spores measured having length < 12 µm), and habitat clearly distinguish A. egregia. Of taxa currently described, the most phenetically similar is A. chepangiana Tulloss and Bhandary (1992) decribed from Shorea robusta Gaertn. forest in Nepal and has been long known in southwestern China as "Amanita caesarea var. alba" (Yang 1997). A somewhat similar African species is A. zambiana Pegler & Piearce.
Other than for the interior of the universal veil, it was not possible to produce illustrations of the tissues of A. egregia from the holotype because of its condition. Hence, two illustrations included here were prepared from more recent collections of this species. Data from these collections is included on this page and is marked "non-type."
—R. E. Tulloss
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D. A. Reid
"Great White Slender Caesar"
1. Amanita egregia, ca. Paluma, Queensland, Australia. (Halling 6806)
2. Amanita egregia, Queensland, Australia.
Dr. Roy E. Halling - (1) ca. Paluma, Queensland,
Australia. (Halling 6806)
Each spore data set is intended to comprise a set of measurements from a single specimen made by a single observer;
and explanations prepared for this site talk about specimen-observer pairs associated with each data set.
Combining more data into a single data set is non-optimal because it obscures observer differences
(which may be valuable for instructional purposes, for example) and may obscure instances in which
a single collection inadvertently contains a mixture of taxa.