The following description is based on the original description of Amanita echinulata and Bas' statements made in arguing for the species' being placed in section Validae rather section Lepidella where it had been previously placed (Bas 1969). In preparing the technical tab for this page, we became aware that both (Beeli 1935) and (Gilbert 1941) were unreliable sources because they included A. fuliginosa within the present species and assigned other material to A. echinulata that have very different spore size ranges.
The cap of Amanita echinulata is 50 - 70 mm wide, plano-convex, with a nonstriate margin. The cap is dark brown and bears darker, pyramidal, volval warts.
The gills are free to adnexed and white.
Its stem is 90 × 5 - 9 mm, cylindric, undecorated, and the same color as the cap. The ring is superior, membranous, thin, skirt-like, pallid at first and then dark brownish-gray. The volva is easily lost from the stem base.
Taste and odor were not reported for the type collection.
The spores measure 5.5 - 6.5 × 4.5 - 5.5 µm (Bas 1969) and are subglobose to broadly ellipsoid and amyloid. Clamps are probably absent from bases of basidia given the species' placement in sect. Validae.
The present species was originally described from the Democratic Republic of Congo, where it was collected in dry forest. It is solitary or gregarious.
The concept of the present species has been confused in the past, and we have retreated to only that information which was in the original description or has been derived from subsequent study of the type collection.
The editors of this site owe a great debt to Dr. Cornelis Bas
whose famous cigar box files of Amanita nomenclatural information
gathered over three or more decades were made available to RET for computerization
and make up the lion's share of the nomenclatural information presented on this site.
The following text may make multiple use of each data field.
The field may contain magenta text presenting data from a type study
and/or revision of other original material cited in the protolog of the present taxon.
Macroscopic descriptions in magenta are a combination of data from the protolog and
additional observations made on the exiccata during revision of the cited original
The same field may also contain black text, which is data from a revision of the present
taxon (including non-type material and/or material not cited in the protolog).
Paragraphs of black text will be labeled if further subdivision of
this text is appropriate.
Olive text indicates a specimen that has not been
thoroughly examined (for example, for microscopic details) and marks other places in the text
where data is missing or uncertain.
The following material is derived from the protolog of the present taxon, Beeli (1935), Gilbert (1940 & 1941), and Bas (1969).
from protolog: 50 - 70 mm wide, brown-fuligineous, plano-convex; context thin, fleshy; margin nonstriate; universal veil as pyramidal warts, darker than pileus surface.
Beeli (1935): additions—context firm, white. [Note: In 1935, Beeli relied, at least in part, upon more recent, non-type collections of which at least some may not be properly assigned to the present species.]
Bas (1969): intensely pigmented, thin; margin smooth when fresh, striate in exsiccatum, nonappendiculate.
from protolog: free to adnexed, white; lamellulae not described.
Beeli(1935): pointed at both ends. [Note: In 1935, Beeli relied, at least in part, upon more recent, non-type collections of which at least some may not be properly assigned to the present species.]
from protolog: 90 × 5 - 9 mm, concolorous with pileus, cylindric, glabrous; bulb present; context solid; partial veil superior, membranous, pale at first, then fuligineous; universal veil ephemeral, leaving no trace.
Beeli (1935): additions—context firm, white; partial veil thin, pendent, fuligineous gray. [Note: In 1935, Beeli relied, at least in part, upon more recent, non-type collections.]
Bas (1969): partial veil membranous, substriate; universal veil leaving scarcely any remains at stipe base.
Beeli (1935): Odor not recorded. Taste bitter. [Note: In 1935, Beeli relied, at least in part, upon more recent, non-type collections of which at least some may not be properly assigned to the present species.]
Beeli (1935): filamentous hyphae interwoven, some with dark homogenous contents, sometimes with inflated tip cells; excretive [?vascular] hyphae numerous. [Note: In 1935, Beeli relied, at least in part, upon more recent, non-type collections of which at least some may not be properly assigned to the present species.]
Bas (1969): On pileus: inflated cells in parallel-erect chains. On stipe: not described.
lamella edge tissue
from protolog: "not observed."
Beeli (1935): 4 × 4.5 μm wide, hyaline, smooth, amyloid, globose. [Note: In 1935, Beeli relied, at least in part, upon more recent, non-type collections of which at least some may not be properly assigned to the present species. Sporograph not generatable.]
Beeli (1935): Solitary or gregarious. Terrestrial in dry forest. [Note: In 1935, Beeli relied, at least in part, upon more recent, non-type collections of which at least some may not be properly assigned to the present species.]
The only spore measurements that can be attributed with certainty to this species are those that Bas reported from the holotype. Gilbert's spore drawings attributed to the present species are from the holotype of A. fuliginosa (see Bas' comments, below) and from Goossens 843 (Gilbert 1940): [6/1/1] 7.0 - 8.4 × 6.0 - 6.5 μm, (Q = 1.09 - 1.36), hyaline, smooth, amyloid, subglobose to broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid; apiculus sublateral and cylindric per figure; contents not described; white in deposit. [Note: Spore measurements are taken from the six drawings of (Gilbert 1940: tab. LVIII (fig. 1)) that are in apparent lateral view.—ed.] It should be noted that the latter measurements have ranges of length and width that are entirely and markedly disjoint from those that Bas obtained from the holotype of A. echinulata (above). Hence, not only do we follow Bas in excluding the holotype of A. fuliginosa from the present species, we also propose that Goossens 843 is not properly placed in A. echinulata.
Bas (1969): "Gilbert (1940: 79) placed this species in his genus Aspidella, the name of which is a synonym of Amanita section Lepidella. however, the type material of A. echinulata has amyloid spores 5.5 - 6.5 × 4.5 - 5.5 μm, a very thin cap which is smooth in fresh, but striate-sulcate in dried condition, a non-appendiculate margin of the cap, a deeply coloured pileipellis, a volva which leaves scarcely any remnants at the base of the stem, and a membranous, substriate ring. Therefore this species must be placed in Amanita section Validae near A. fritillaria (Berk.) Sacc. and allied species (see Corner & Bas 1962: 262). Compare also the note on A. fuliginosa Beeli...."
We have reliable spore data for this species because Bas was concerned to eliminate the taxon from placement in section Lepidella.
Beeli reports an indigenous name for this species—"lokanga."
—R. E. Tulloss
Information to support the viewer in reading the content of "technical" tabs
can be found here.
Each spore data set is intended to comprise a set of measurements from a single specimen made by a single observer;
and explanations prepared for this site talk about specimen-observer pairs associated with each data set.
Combining more data into a single data set is non-optimal because it obscures observer differences
(which may be valuable for instructional purposes, for example) and may obscure instances in which
a single collection inadvertently contains a mixture of taxa.