3. Amanita daucipes - young button with volva not yet colored
4. Amanita daucipes - margin of maturing cap - NJ
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The cap of Amanita daucipes is 89 - 200 mm wide, white or very pale sordid beige (and then darker in the center). The cap is subhemispheric at first, then convex. It is dull when dry and sometimes cracks so that each wart is in the center of a region bounded by cracks. The flesh is white, not staining/bruising when cut, but slowly becoming pink and then more or less dark brick red in old wounds; it is more or less 7 mm thick over the stipe, and thins evenly to the cap margin. The margin is not striate; it is appendiculate. The volva on the cap takes a variety of forms—thick cake-like warts and/or narrow subconic or small pyramidal warts sometimes connected at tips suggesting decoration on some Lycoperdon spp.; toward the cap margin, the warts become smaller. At first the warts are white to pale pinkish. They then become pinkish beige to pinkish to reddish pink; with age, they become pallid on the sides and grayish on top; and they are easily removable.
The gills of this species are free (or occasionally very narrowly adnate), without a decurrent line on the stipe; they are close to subcrowded, cream in mass, pale yellow or pale yellowish cream in side view. They are about as broad as the thicknesss of the pileus above the stipe (e.g., 12 mm broad); and their margins are flocculose (lens). The short gills are truncate to attenuate, plentiful, unevenly distributed, and of many lengths.
The stem of A. daucipes (excluding the bulb) is 55 - 193 × 9 - 25 mm, white, decorated with white to pale pinkish to pink flocculence (easily removed on one's fingers when a fresh specimen is handled), with flocculence often densest in upper half (approximately). The stem's bulb is 60 - 150 × 31 - 60 mm, radicating, irregularly turnip-shaped or irregularly top-shaped or carrot-shaped, infrequently potatoe-like; it is also often marked with vertical clefts and has a surface that often stains/bruises strongly vinaceous or reddish vinaceous at maturity. The flesh of the stem is solid, mostly white or cream-white, not staining or bruising rapidly, but eventually staining/bruising, with old wounds colored as in the case of the cap. The ring of A. daucipes is superior to subapical to apical, white, submembranous-felted, tearing, striate above, flocculose-fibrillose below, and with its underside having some or many flocculose pinkish areas; it commonly falls from the stipe by maturity of the mushroom. The volva is usually absent on the stem's bulb. On the other hand, there are often parts of the volva's internal limb remaining as a loose, rather thick, felted ring around the base of the stipe (lying on the top of the bulb) or as a rather robust felted patch or patches in roughly the same position; these remnants are pinkish brown to white with pinkish regions.
The odor is strong and sweetish or nondescript in young material and meat-like to “old ham” or decaying protein in older material. To my knowledge, the taste has not been recorded.
The spores measure (7.7-) 8.0 - 11.5 (-13.8) × (4.5-) 5.0 - 6.8 (-9.9) µm and are ellipsoid to elongate (rarely broadly ellipsoid, rarely cylindric) and amyloid. Clamps are present at bases of basidia.
The species occurs with oak (Quercus) or in mixed Pine-Oak forest. Hickory and Birch are also sometimes found nearby.
The range of the species extends from the eastern part of the U.S.A. to the neo-volcanic zone of central Mexico.
WARNING: I have been told on a number of occasions that the stipe's bulb is edible. Considering the poor knowledge of toxins in section Lepidella and the established fact that kidney and/or liver failure is associated with ingestion of some species in section Lepidella, I cannot recommend that this species be eaten.—R. E. Tulloss
The editors of this site owe a great debt to Dr. Cornelis Bas
whose famous cigar box files of Amanita nomenclatural information
gathered over three or more decades were made available to RET for computerization
and make up the lion's share of the nomenclatural information presented on this site.
The following text may make multiple use of each data field.
The field may contain magenta text presenting data from a type study
and/or revision of other original material cited in the protolog of the present taxon.
Macroscopic descriptions in magenta are a combination of data from the protolog and
additional observations made on the exiccata during revision of the cited original
The same field may also contain black text, which is data from a revision of the present
taxon (including non-type material and/or material not cited in the protolog).
Paragraphs of black text will be labeled if further subdivision of
this text is appropriate.
Olive text indicates a specimen that has not been
thoroughly examined (for example, for microscopic details) and marks other places in the text
where data is missing or uncertain.
The following material not directly from the protolog of the present taxon and not cited as the work
of another researcher is based on original research of R. E. Tulloss.
89 - 155+ mm wide, white or sordid very pale beige, darker over disk, hemispheric at first, then convex, dry, dull, sometimes becoming areolate with wart in center of each areole; context white, not staining/bruising when cut, slowly becoming pink and then more or less dark brick red in old wounds, 7 mm thick over stipe, thinning evenly to margin; margin nonstriate, appendiculate with large segments of partial veil or flocculose material, ??; universal veil as thick cake-like warts and/or narrow subconic or small pyramidal warts sometimes connected at tips suggesting decoration on some Lycoperdon spp., toward margin warts becoming smaller then reduced to floccose material, at first pinkish beiged to pinkish to reddish pink, becoming pallid on the sides and grayish on tope, detersile, ??.
free (or occasionally very narrowly adnate), without decurrent line on stipe, close to subcrowded, cream in mass, pale yellow or pale yellowish cream in side view, bruising/staining not observed, 7? mm broad, with margin flocculose (lens); lamellulae truncate to attenuate, plentiful, unevenly distributed, of many lengths.
55 - 193 × 9 - 25 mm, white, narrowing downward, decorated with white to pale pinkish to pink flocculence (easily removed on fingers of collector), with flocculence often densest in upper half (approximately); bulb 60 - 85 × 31 - 56 mm, radicating, irregularly napiform or irregularly turbinate or dauciform, infrequently potatoe-like, often with longitudinally oriented clefts, with surface often staining/bruising strongly vinaceous or reddish vinaceous at maturity; context solid, mostly white or cream-white, not staining or bruising rapidly, sometimes with some grayish areas and/or with a few brick red spots in bulb, eventually staining-bruising, with old wounds colored as in case of pileus, larval tunnels not observed; partial veil superior to subapical to apical, white, submembranous/felted, tearing, pulling away from stipe, striate above, flocculose-fibrillose below, with underside having some or many flocculose pinkish areas; universal veil absent on bulb, often with limbus internus remaining as loose rather thick felted ring around base of stipe or as rather robust felted patch or patches at base of stipe, pinkish brown to white with pinkish regions.
Odor strong and sweetish or nondescript in young material, meat-like to “old ham” or decaying protein in older material. [See (Bas 1969).] Taste not recorded.
Bas (1969): [55/7/-] (8.5-) 9.0 - 11.0 (-11.5) × (5.0-) 5.5 - 6.5 (-7.0) μm, (Q = 1.40 - 1.90; Q = 1.50 - 1.80), colorless, hyaline, thin-walled, amyloid, ellipsoid to elongate, sometimes subreniform; apiculus not described; contents subgranular to guttulate, refractive; white in deposit.
[180/9/9] (7.7-) 8.0 - 11.5 (-13.8) × (4.5-) 5.0 - 6.8 (-9.9) µm, (L = (8.3-) 8.7 - 10.8 µm; L’ = 9.8 µm; W = 5.6 - 6.5 µm; W’ = 6.0 µm; Q = (1.22-) 1.41 - 1.83 (-2.11); Q = 1.46 - 1.68 (-1.74); Q’ = 1.62), colorless, hyaline, smooth, ??-walled, amyloid, ellipsoid to elongate, rarely broadly ellipsoid, rarely cylindric, adaxially flattened, sometimes expanded at one end, infrequently subfusiform or langeniform; apiculus sublateral, cylindric; contents ??; white in deposit.
Solitary to subgregarious or (infrequently) gregarious in “fairy ring.” Edo. México: In mixed forest of Pinus and Quercus recovering from extensive logging. New Jersey: In closed canopy mixed deciduous forest with very little understory with Q. alba, Q. rubra, Carya, Ostrya, Acer, Betula, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Liquidambar styraciflua or under Quercus in sandy soil or with Quercus and L. tulipifera. North Carolina: Under Q. rubra. South Carolina: In mixed hardwood-Pinus forest. Tennessee: Under Quercus. Texas: ??. Virginia: ??. West Virginia: ??.
MARYLAND—Unkn. Co. - unkn. loc., s.d. L. Krieger s.n. [Kelly 1978] (MICH)
NORTH CAROLINA—Orange Co. - Chapel Hill, 29.ix.1911 W. C. Coker 309 (NCU as "A. chlorinosma form B"), 21.ix.1944 W. C. Coker 14005 (NCU), 30.ix.1946 J. N. Couch 14042 (NCU).
OHIO—Franklin Co. - Columbus, s.d. Sullivant 193 (holotype, PC).
PENNSYLVANIA—Carbon Co. - Bowmanstown, 22.viii.1963 R. Homola s.n. [Bas 3856] (L).
TENNESSEE— Knox Co. - Roaring Springs, 15.vii.1934 L. R. Hesler 4213 (TENN).
ARKANSAS—Saline Co. - unkn. loc., 6.vii.2008 J. Justice s.n. (RET 435-8).
INDIANA—Monroe Co. - Bloomington, Griffey Lk. [39.2010° N/ 86.5188° W, 202 m], 21.vii.2012 Stephen Russell s.n. [mushroomobserver.org # 102311] (RET 533-2).
MISSISSIPPI—?? Co. - Upper Pascagoula R. Wildlife Mgmt. Area [30º54.134’ N/ 088º44.502’ W], 12.vii.2009 Alexandra & Phillip Tussing s.n. (RET 442-6).
NEW JERSEY—Hunterdon Co. - Lebanon, Oakmoss Mycol. Preserve [40°38'50.07" N/ 74°47'50.92" W], 26.vii.2006 R. Ballsley, L. Possiel & R. E. Tulloss 7-26-06-B (RET 401-7). Mercer Co. - Marquand Pk., 2.viii.1981 member New Jersey Mycol. Assoc. s.n. [Tulloss NJMA-8-2-81-A] (in herb. New Jersey Mycol. Assoc.); Princeton, Mt. Lucas Rd. [40°22'36" N/ 74°39'23" W, 91 m], 9.ix.1999 N. Macdonald & R. E. Tulloss 9-9-99-L (RET 297-8), ca. Princeton Water Works, vii?.1993 J. D. Montagne s.n. (RET 094-9). Monmouth Co. - Upper Freehold, ca. Imlaystown, Clayton Co. Pk., Bridges Tr. [40°09’26” N/ 74°30’10” W, 75 m], 19.viii.2012 M. A. & R. E. Tulloss 8-19-12-C (RET 508-4); ca. Roosevelt, Assunpink Wildlife Mgmt. Area, 16.viii.1980 R. E. Tulloss 8-16-80-F (RET ??). Passaic Co. - unkn. loc., viii.2007 unkn. coll. s.n. (RET 409-3). Somerset Co. - New Brunswick, Rutgers Univ., Cook College, 24.vii.1981 E. Varney s.n. [Tulloss 7-24-81-A] (RET 221-4); ca. Rutgers Univ. (Cook College), grounds of E. R. Squibb & Sons, 29.ix.1989 R. E. Tulloss 9-29-89-A (RET 024-1). Warren Co. - Yards Crk. Reservoir, 20.viii.1982 “Peggy” s.n. [Tulloss 8-20-82-B] (RET 221-4).
NORTH CAROLINA—Iredell Co. - jct. St. Hwys. 64 & 70 & Westminster Rd., 6-10.vii.1987 Allein Stanley 258 p.p. (UNCC, mixed coll.). .
PENNSYLVANIA—Fulton Co. - Cowan’s Gap St. Pk., viii.1982 Emily Johnson s.n. [Tulloss 8-82-EJ] (RET 129-3; XAL). Northampton Co. - Blue Mtn., Game Lands 168, off Old Grade Rd. [40.83025° N/ 75.35626° W, 271 m], 4.viii.2012 Gene Binder s.n. [Tulloss 8-4-12-B] (RET 505-1). Unkn. Co. - ca. border of Franklin and Adams Cos., Michaux St. For., District Rd., 12.viii.2005 Georgiana Bender s.n. [Tulloss 8-12-05-F] (RET 386-8).
SOUTH CAROLINA—Edgefield Co. - Unkn. loc., x.1990 Richard E. Baird s.n. [Tulloss REB6B] (RET 546-9).
TENNESSEE— Blount Co. - GSMNP, Cades Cove, Hyatt Lane, 9.viii.2005 E. B. Lickey & D. J. Lodge [Lodge] DJL-TN-22 (TENN).
TEXAS—Hardin Co. - Big Thicket Nat. Preserve, Turkey Crk. Unit, Kirby Nature Tr., 17.viii.1980 D. P. Lewis 2239 (F; RET 013-8), 20.ix.1980 D. P. Lewis 2323 (F; RET 013-7). Jasper Co. - Jasper, U.S. 190, Catholic Church, 11.x.1997 D. P. Lewis 5925 (RET 286-4). Newton Co. - Bleakwood, 5.ix.1996 D. P. Lewis 5703 (RET 285-10). Orange Co. - Vidor, 10.x.1980 D. P. Lewis 2331 (F; RET 013-5). ?? Co. - Big Thicket Nat. Preserve, 20.ix.1981 participant Texas Mycol. Soc. foray s.n. [D. P. Lewis 2814] (RET 014-1).
VIRGINIA—Augusta Co. - Geo. Washington Nat. For., Todd Lake Campground [38°21'55" N/ 79°12'41" W, 610 m], 28.viii.1982 M. A. King & D. C., M. H. & R. E. Tulloss 8-28-82-B (RET 214-3).
WEST VIRGINIA—Giles Co. - Jefferson Nat. For., Pandapus Pond, 12.vii.1991 R. P. Bhatt 82 (VPI? n.v.). Greenbrier Co. - Monongahela Nat. For., Lake Sherwood Recreation Area [38°00'24" N/ 80°06'40" W, 825 m], 31.viii.1982 D. C. Tulloss 8-31-82-B (MU; RET 214-2).
—R. E. Tulloss
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1. Amanita daucipes
2. Amanita daucipes
3. Amanita daucipes - young button with volva not yet colored
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a single collection inadvertently contains a mixture of taxa.