The cap of Amanita
bulbosa var. bulbosa is 62 - 95 mm wide, white, hemispheric
to plano-convex, tacky, shiny to subshiny, with a nonstriate margin,
incurved or slightly downcurved. The volva is present as white,
staining brown patches up to 12.5 mm wide, fibrillose and easily
removable. The flesh is 4 - 7 mm thick over the stem, thinning evenly
towards the margin, white, sometimes watery in damaged areas.
The gills are free, narrowly adnate,
subcrowded, 5 - 10 mm broad, pale cream in mass, off-white with a
faint grayish tint in side view, with a decurrent line on the stem.
The short gills are rounded subtruncate to subtruncate and plentiful.
The stem is 65 - 115 × 12 - 23 mm,
white, slightly narrowing upward, barely flaring at the top, hollow to
stuffed in the lower third of the stem. The bulb is 23 - 32 × 22 - 36
mm, globose to subglobose, soft, easily compressed with fingers, with
a subabrupt/marginate top. The ring is membranous, subsuperior, white, darkening
on the margin, skirt-like, faintly striate on the upperside, radially
fibrillose on the lower side, with a thickened edge. The volva is
either a low white rim on the outer edge of the flattened top of the
bulb or arranged in very abbreviated broken collars. The flesh is white.
Spores measured by RET of A. bulbosa var. bulbosa
are as follows: (7.0-) 7.6 - 8.5 (-9.0) × (6.5-) 7.2 - 7.9 (-8.0) µm and are
globose to subglobose, rarely broadly ellipsoid or ellipsoid, and amyloid. Clamps are absent from bases
of basidia. Neville and Poumarat (2004)
provide the following spore measurements based on a larger sample
size: (7.5-) 8 - 9.5 (-10) × (6.5-) 7 - 8.5 (-9) µm and are globose
to subglobose to broadly ellipsoid, rarely ellipsoid.
The taxon was described from Germany (Bavaria) and is known from Europe and western Asia. A citrine-yellow variety of the present taxon [A. bulbosa var. citrina (Schaeff.) Gillet] was also described from Bavaria and has the same known range. The Scottish material collected and examined by RET comes from a pure stand of European Beech (Fagus silvatica). Neville and Poumarat (2004) state that this taxon usually occurs from the end of summer to the end of autumn and in the same habitats as its variety citrina at altitudes up to 1200 meters. They further state that it is also found in broad-leaved forests including European Beech, Chestnut (Castanea sativa), Oaks (Quercus suber), and Eucalyptus glabulus; sometimes with Pines (Pinus pinaster and P. strobus); and mixed forests of European Beech and Spruce (Picea abies).
≡Amanita bulbosa var. alba Pers. nom. inval.1818. Trait. Champ. Comest.: 179. [Replacement for autonym of type variety. ICBN §11.6, §32.7] [For the same reason, the type selected by Neville and Poumarat (2004) must be rejected because Schaeffer's plate is required to be the holotype of Agaricus bulbosus Schaeff. See "holotypes" data field below.]
≡Agaricus (Amanita) phalloides var. b albus Duby in DC. 1830. DC. Bot. Gall., 2e ed., 2: 850. [Misapplication.]
≡Agaricus (Amanita) mappa var. minor Fr. 1874. Hymenomyc. Eur.: 19.
≡Amanita mappa var. minor Sacc. 1887. Syll. Fung. 5: 11.
≡Amanita mappa var. minor Killerm. nom. inval.1931. Denkschr. Bayer. Bot. Ges. Regensburg 18(neue Folg. 12): 5. [Not definitely accepted by author. ICBN §34.1]
=Amanita citrina var. alba (Quél.) E.-J. Gilbert. 1918. Gen. Amanita Pers.: 67. [Note: Numerous authors cite the basionym as originated by W. C. Price; however, while he mentioned a white variety, he never named it.]
≡Amanita citrina f. alba Quél. 1892. C. R. Assoc. Franc. Avanc. Sci. 20(2): 467.
≡Amanita citrina f. alba (Quél.) E.-J. Gilbert. 1918. Gen. Amanita Pers.: 64. [Superfluous combination.]
≡Amanita citrina f. alba (Quél.) Veselý. 1933. Ann. Mycol. 31(4): ??. [Superfluous combination.]
For more detail see the Amanita Nomenclator (t.b.d.)
The editors of this site owe a great debt to Dr. Cornelis Bas
whose famous cigar box files of Amanita nomenclatural information
gathered over three or more decades were made available to RET for computerization
and make up the lion's share of the nomenclatural information presented on this site.
Due to delays in data processing at GenBank, some accession numbers may lead to dead pages.
These pages will eventually be made live, so try again later.
Agaricus bulbosus—Schaeff. 1770. Fung. Bavar. Palatin. Ratisbon. Nascunt. Icones 3: pl. 241. [Cf. ICBN Vienna Code 7.7 and associated examples. This plate must be judged holotype of the present name.]
double click in markup mode to edit.
Neville and Poumarat. 2004. Fungi Europaei 9: 801-805.
Olive text indicates a specimen that has not been
thoroughly examined (for example, for microscopic details) and marks other places in the text
where data is missing or uncertain.
The following material not directly from the protolog of the present taxon and not cited as the work of Dr. Z. L. Yang or another researcher is based upon original research by R. E. Tulloss.
62 - 65 mm wide, white, unchanging when cut or bruised, hemispheric at first, then planoconvex, shiny to subshiny, tacky; context white, unchanging when cut or bruised, 4 - 7 mm thick at stipe, thinning evenly to margin; margin nonstriate, incurved at first, finally slightly decurved, not appendiculate, with pileipellis exceeding ends of lamellae; universal veil as patches of varying size (to 12.5 mm across), white at first, browning from edges inward, detersile, fibrillose (lens).
free to narrowly adnate with sometimes faint decurrent line on stipe apex, subcrowded, pale cream in mass, off-white with faint grayish tint or pale cream in side view, unchanging when cut or bruised, 5 - 10 mm broad; lamellulae subtruncate to rounded subtruncate, plentiful, ??.
65 - 115 × 9 - 12 mm, white, becoming faintly dingy or distinctly browning from handling, narrowing upward slightly, barely to distinctly flaring at apex, decorated with longitudinal striation (fine or marked) and raised fibrils, with surface sometimes splitting into fibrillose recurved scales; bulb subglobose to globose, subabrupt, ??, 23 - 32 × 22 - 36 mm, soft, easily compressed; context white, unchanging when cut or bruised, hollow in upper part, stuffed or solid below, with 2 - 3 mm wide central cylinder, with larva tunnels white; partial veil superior, white, darkening especially on margin in age, membranous, skirt-like, with upper side faintly striate (10× lens), with underside radially fibrillose, with edge thickened; universal veil as short limb or merely brief rim on upper edge of bulb.
Odor of newly dug potatoes. Taste not recorded.
Spot test for laccase (syringaldazine) - negative throughout basidiome (sporulation just beginning). Spot test for tyrosinase (paracresol) - minimal positive reactions in warts on pileus, volval limb, and external surface of bulb (sporulation just beginning). Test voucher: Tulloss 9-6-88-L.
[20/1/1] (7.0-) 7.6 - 8.5 (-9.0) × (6.5-) 7.2 - 7.9 (-8.0) μm, (L = 8.1 mu;m; W = 7.6 μm; Q = (1.03-) 1.04 - 1.13 (-1.14); Q = 1.07), hyaline, colorless, smooth, thin-walled, amyloid, globose to subglobose, often at least somewhat adaxially flattened; apiculus sublateral, cylindric; contents granular to multiguttulate; ?? in deposit.
Solitary or in pairs. Scotland: In sandy loam under leaf litter in ancient, pure stand of Fagus sylvaticus.
CZECH REPUBLIC: SOUTH BOHEMIA—Stará Řeka Nature Reserve, 2.x.2006 Dr. J. Borovička 23 (RET 406-1).
FRANCE: GIRONDE—Le Porge, 16.xi.1997 F. Massart 97067 (in herb. F. Massart; RET 273-2).
ITALY: UNKN. PROV.—unkn. loc., 12.xii.2011 Carmine Lavorato 111212-18 (in herb. C. Lavorato; RET 501-5).
U.K.: SCOTLAND—Grampian Region - Dyke & Moy, Darnaway Estate, 6.ix.1988 R. Roper & R. Watling s.n. [Tulloss 9-6-88-G] (RET 107-7), Bernice Fatto, Mary A. King & R. E. Tulloss [Tulloss 9-6-88-I] (RET 107-8), G. Kibby s.n. [Tulloss 9-6-88-K] (RET ??), R. Roper s.n. [Tulloss 9-6-88-L] (RET ??).
Note: RET recently received a communication from Andreas Gminder suggesting that the present taxon and its var. citrina are simply color variants within a single taxon.
—R. E. Tulloss
Information to support the viewer in reading the content of "technical" tabs
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"Schaeffer's Bulbous Amanita"
1. Amanita bulbosa var. bulbosa, Scotland, U.K.
2. Amanita bulbosa var. bulbosa, Italy.
3. Amanita bulbosa var. bulbosa, Italy.
4. Amanita bulbosa var. bulbosa, Italy.
RET - (1) Scotland, U.K.
Dr. Vicenzo Migliozzi - (2-3) Italy.
Igr. Carmine Lavorato - (4) Italy.
Each spore data set is intended to comprise a set of measurements from a single specimen made by a single observer;
and explanations prepared for this site talk about specimen-observer pairs associated with each data set.
Combining more data into a single data set is non-optimal because it obscures observer differences
(which may be valuable for instructional purposes, for example) and may obscure instances in which
a single collection inadvertently contains a mixture of taxa.