1. Amanita breckonii, exannulate specimens,
Land's End, San Francisco, San Francisco Co.,
California, U.S.A. (RET 174-6, 174-7,
The cap of Amanita breckonii is 40 - 90 mm wide, with color ranging from pale yellowish white to pale yellowish tan (for example, Light Buff to Naples Yellow when young and Ochraceous Buff to Cinnamon Buff when older*), convex to globose when young, becoming convex to broadly convex to plane to irregular in maturity, subviscid to viscid, with a decurved margin when young and strongly tuberculate-striate margin at maturity. The volval remnants are present as flat, irregular shaped, whitish to light buff, floccose plaques or patches.
Gills are adnate to adnexed then free, white,
close to subdistant to occasionally crowded, thin, and narrowly
ventricose. The short gills are present in several tiers.
The stem of this species is 70 - 100 × 9 - 20 mm, narrowing upward, solid or stuffed, white, smooth and glabrous at first, becoming finely furfuraceous towards the base. The bulb is large, solid, sometimes without marked separation from the remainder of the stem, sometimes distinctly marginate, subglobose to pear-shaped. A short, sharp "false root" is present at the bottom of the bulb. The ring is basal to subbasal, rarely median, often appearing double (see discussion, below). The volva is present as a white, friable, low rim of tissue around the top of the bulb, often with fragments adhering to the surrounding soil, disappearing with age. The flesh is white.
The odor and taste are mild.
The spores measure (7.2-) 9.8 - 12.8 (-16.0) × (4.5-) 6.2 - 8.7 (-10.8) µm and are ellipsoid to
elongate and inamyloid. Clamps are present at bases of basidia.
This species was originally described from California (USA) where it was observed under Monterey Pine (Pinus radiata) near sea level. It is also known from Washington state under Spruce (Abies) and Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa) at 1220 m elev. This species was originally noted for what was thought to be a double ring on the stem, however, the lower ring is actually a part of the volva which in the button stage was positioned between the stem and the underside of the ring. Both the ring and the false second ring are frequently lost by maturity.
The editors of this site owe a great debt to Dr. Cornelis Bas
whose famous cigar box files of Amanita nomenclatural information
gathered over three or more decades were made available to RET for computerization
and make up the lion's share of the nomenclatural information presented on this site.
genitive of Latinized name, "Breckon's" or "of Breckon"
6.iii.1982 David C., Mark H. & R. E. Tulloss 3-6-82-G (RET 174-8b)
J. Geml et al., Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden
Thiers. 1982. Agaricales Calif. I. Amanitaceae: pl. 19.
The following text may make multiple use of each data field.
The field may contain magenta text presenting data from a type study
and/or revision of other original material cited in the protolog of the present taxon.
Macroscopic descriptions in magenta are a combination of data from the protolog and
additional observations made on the exiccata during revision of the cited original
The same field may also contain black text, which is data from a revision of the present
taxon (including non-type material and/or material not cited in the protolog).
Paragraphs of black text will be labeled if further subdivision of
this text is appropriate.
Olive text indicates a specimen that has not been
thoroughly examined (for example, for microscopic details) and marks other places in the text
where data is missing or uncertain.
The following revision is based on the protolog of the present species and unpublished data of Tulloss derived from a study of the holotype, isotype, and paratypes. Data on additional material is based on molecular studies of K. W. Hughes and L. V. Kudzma and other original research of R.E. Tulloss.
40 - 90 mm diam., convex to
globose when young, becoming convex to broadly convex
to planar or irregular at maturity, pale yellowish
white to slightly tannish cream to pale shades of tan
or pale yellowish tan (Ivory Yellow, Light Buff,
Napthalene Yellow, Naples Yellow, Warm Buff), with
disk at maturity Ochraceous Buff to Buff Yellow to
Apricot Yellow, becoming Straw Yellow to Maize Yellow
toward the margin, disk often Cinnamon Buff when old
or water soaked, unchanging when bruised or wounded,
subviscid to viscid; context pale buff under the pileipellis, else white, unchanging when bruised or wounded, firm, "floccose," up to 10 mm thick at stipe, thinning abruptly toward the margin; margin decurved to slightly incurved when young, plane to uplifted in age, smooth at first, becoming strongly tuberculate-striate (0.1-0.15R) at maturity, nonappendiculate; universal veil usually as scattered to abundant, deciduous plaques or patches, flat, irregularly shape, 2 - 4 mm broad, 1 - 2 mm thick, whitish to Light Buff, usually appearing white in age.
adnate to adnexed, then free, leaving ephemeral decurrent lines on stipe apex, close to subdistant to occasionally crowded, white, sordid slightly orangish pale tan (10YR 7/6) to orange brown (7.5YR 7/8) when dried, thin, narrowly ventricose, with edge white and fimbriate when young; lamellulae in several tiers.
70 - 100 × 9 - 20 mm (width measured at apex), tapering downward, smooth at first, becoming finely furfuraceous toward base, white, discoloring slightly when bruised; context white, solid or stuffed with dense pith; bulb large, solid, sometimes without marked separation from remainder of stipe, sometimes distinctly marginate, subglobose to pyriform, with short sharp pseudorhiza; partial veil basal to subbasal, rarely median, often appearing to be double ("upper annulus," white, floccose, to tomentose, thin, weakly membranous to submembranous, originally continuous with universal veil tissue at pileus margin, separating from it early in expansion, with a margin thickened by fragments of the universal veil, often evanescent; "lower annulus" continuous with universal veil layer on bulb, separating from it late in expansion or often remaining continuous with the volva, white, floccose, to tomentose, not membranous, eventually forming thick to moderately thick ring just above rim of universal veil on bulb, often evanescent or remaining as a zone of appressed fibrils); universal veil as a white, friable, low rim of tissue around the apex of the bulb, often with fragments adhering to the surrounding soil, disappearing with age.
Odor and taste mild.
Results according to Breckon (1968): on exposed context of the lower stipe and bulb unless otherwise noted: 10% FeSO4 - yellow; 3% KOH - negative; Melzer’s reagent - negative; phenol - positive; phenolaniline - positive; tincture of guaiac - faintly positive in the stuffing of the stipe’s central cylinder.
very thin in some areas, 10 - 30 µm thick; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 1.0 - 5.5 µm diam., subradially arranged, tightly interwoven, hyaline or with orange-brown intracellular pigment, gelatinizing; vascular hyphae not observed.
hyaline except for tissue just below the pileipellis which is concolorous with it; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 1.2 - 11.0 µm diam., branching, with walls thin or thickened up to 1.2 µm thick, often in fascicles; inflated cells large and dominating (e.g. 100 × 68 µm), terminal, ovoid to pyriform to broadly clavate to clavate, with wall up to 0.8 µm thick; vascular hyphae 2.0 - 12.0 µm diam., uncommon.
bilateral, angle of divergence from very shallow to about 45°, diverging elements and limits of central stratum obscured by plentiful hyphae with rather shallow angle of divergence; wcs = 45 - 55 µm; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 1.8 - 8.5 µm diam., plentiful, branching, with intercalary inflated cells thin-walled [with those in and adjacent to central stratum barely diverging from it or diverging at up to 30°, allantoid to subfusiform to suclavate, e.g. 58 × 15.0 µm, with those of the subhymenial base at some remove from central stratum subglobose to ellipsoid to narrowly ellipsoid to clavate to subclavate to broadly fusiform to fusiform (e.g. 22 × 13.0 µm) and having a less acute angle to central stratum (30° - 60°)]; divergent, terminal, inflated cells not observed; vascular hyphae not observed.
wst-near = 25 - 35 µm (portion exceeding central stratum); wst-far = 35 - 60 µm (portion exceeding central stratum); basidia arising from uninflated, short hyphal segments; these, in turn, part of branching hyphae originating in central stratum or arising from an inflated cell of the subhymenial base; clamps observed.
43 - 69 × 9.0 - 14.5 µm, thin-walled, 4-, 2- and 1-sterigmate (in order of decreasing frequency), with sterigmata on 1-spored basidia up to 15.0 × 3.2 µm; clamps and proliferating clamps observed, locally common.
On pileus: with periclinal elements near pileipellis, otherwise without discernible orientation, somewhat gelatinizing on upper surface, remarkably like pileus context except for thin-walls of inflated cells which themselves tend to be narrower than in the context; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 2.8 - 12.0 µm wide, branching, sometimes with marked constriction at septa, thin-walled or with walls up to 1.2 µm thick; inflated cells dominating, ovoid to ellipsoid to clavate to subventricose to allantoid (e.g., 70 × 25 µm) to subpyriform (e.g., 60 × 50 µm), mostly thin-walled, terminal; vascular hyphae 3.0 - 5.2 µm diam., uncommon. On stipe base inclusive of limbus internus ("lower annulus"): absent or scant and then similar to remnants on pileus, with inflated cells collapsed filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae somewhat more plentiful than in material on pileus.
longitudinally acrophysalidic; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 1.8 - 9.8 µm diam., plentiful, branching, at times in fascicles, thin-walled or with walls up to 1.0 µm thick (especially in those of larger diameter) or with very thin plaques on exterior of wall; acrophysalides plentiful, dominantly clavate, also ellipsoid to broadly clavate to obpyriform, up to 231 × 63 µm, thin-walled or with walls up to 1.2 µm thick; vascular hyphae 3.2 - 6.5 µm diam., uncommon, locally in loose coils.
filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 2.2 - 8.5 µm diam., mostly radially oriented, branching, loosely interwoven, plentiful, somewhat gelatinizing, thin-walled or (especially those of larger diameter) with wall up to 0.8 µm thick; inflated cells within the fabric plentiful, terminal, with major axis radially oriented, elongate to narrowly clavate to clavate to subventricose (e.g. 135 × 30 µm), with a slightly grayish cast, walls up to 1.0 µm thick; vascular hyphae not observed.
[320/16/3] (7.2-) 10.0 - 12.8 (-16.0) × (4.5-) 6.2 - 7.8 (-9.0) µm, (L = 10.9 - 12.0 (-12.2) µm; L’ = 11.3 µm; W = (6.6-) 6.7 - 7.1 (-7.2) µm; W’ = 6.9 µm; Q = (1.31-) 1.47 - 1.89 (-2.29); Q = (1.55-) 1.58 - 1.74 (-1.85); Q’ = 1.65), hyaline, smooth, thin-walled, inamyloid, ellipsoid to elongate, sometimes subventricose, often adaxially flattened, occasionally swollen at one end, occasionally subovoid; apiculus sublateral, cylindric, occasionally proportionately very small; contents mono- or multiguttulate; white in deposit.
Solitary to scattered to gregarious. California: Under Pinus radiata, near sea level.
CALIFORNIA—San Francisco Co. - San Francisco, Land's End,
6.iii.1982 David C., Mark H. & R. E. Tulloss
3-6-82-F (RET 174-7, nrITS seq'd.), 3-6-82-G (RET 174-8,
nrITS seq'd.); San Francisco,
campus of San Francisco St. Univ., 11.xii.1966 G.
Breckon 659 (paratype, SFSU), 28.vi.1967 Gary
Breckon 736 (paratype, SFSU), 12.ix.1968 G. Breckon
658 (holotype, SFSU; isotype, NY 00066695, nrITS
& nrLSU seq'd.).
The lower of the structures called a double annulus
in the protolog is actually the limbus internus of
the universal veil as is emphasized by the statement
in the protolog that the structure remains connected
to the portion of the universal veil which covers the
top of the bulb until late in the expansion of the
basidiome. Note also that looking for the
"double annulus" is not an infallible means of
determination of this fungus in the field. The
limbus internus may remain attached to the remainder
of the universal veil on the bulb or, together with
that tissue, be entirely lost. Note that the
partial veil (the "upper partial veil" of the
protolog) may also be ephemeral.
On forays with the San Francisco Mycological Society
in 1982 and 1985, RET gathered material that is
genetically identical to the the NY isotype of A.
breckonii. This material was exannulate;
and, at the time, was classified as A. gemmata
var. exannulata sensu Breckon. Hence,
material classified under the latter name could
profitably be re-examined in hopes to find more
collections of A. breckonii.
—R. E. Tulloss, J. Geml, K. W. Hughes, and L. V. Kudzma.
Information to support the viewer in reading the content of "technical" tabs
can be found here.
Thiers & Ammirati
"Breckon's False-Ring Amanita"
1. Amanita breckonii, exannulate specimens,
Land's End, San Francisco, San Francisco Co.,
California, U.S.A. (RET 174-6, 174-7,
RET - (1) Land's End, San Francisco, San Francisco
County, California, U.S.A. (RET 174-6, 174-7,
Each spore data set is intended to comprise a set of measurements from a single specimen made by a single observer;
and explanations prepared for this site talk about specimen-observer pairs associated with each data set.
Combining more data into a single data set is non-optimal because it obscures observer differences
(which may be valuable for instructional purposes, for example) and may obscure instances in which
a single collection inadvertently contains a mixture of taxa.