The cap of A. borealisorora is 55 - 82 mm wide, pallid brown with grayish or olivaceous tint (a washed out brown, not tan) or grayish brown with center browner, becoming darker with age, sometimes pale cream over the striations at first, broadly bell-shaped, and becoming nearly flat. The cap flesh is mostly white, with a grayish region just below the cap's skin in the center, and does not change when cut or bruised. The edge of the cap is striate (with grooves taking up 20-40% of the cap's radius). Volval remnants appear as crumbly warts and small or (occasionally) large patches with pale edges, whitish at first, becoming gray to grayish brown to dark gray to blackish gray with age and exposure.
The gills are free, lack a connected line on the top of the stem, are close to subcrowded, off-white (near the stem) and grayish (near pileus margin) or entirely grayish white; and they become distinctly grayer with age. They have a white or whitish and minutely powdery edge. The short gills are truncate, of widely varying lengths, plentiful, and unevenly distributed.
The stem is 85 - 106 × 6 - 10 mm, white to off-white, becoming faintly brownish from handling, narrowing upward, not flaring at the very top, with white to grayish flocculence in upper half, with appressed silky patches below that become dark fibrils on the pallid ground color. The very base base of the stipe has a white cottony surface and short white hyphal "cables" that look like (false) roots. The stem's flesh is white, not changing when cut or bruised, hollow, and lacks a skirt. At the stem's base, the volva breaks up into loose patches that are easily left in the soil when the mushroom is collected, the fragments are pale gray to gray, not plentiful and/or appear as a dark gray ring above a white, "strangulate" zone.
There is no noticeable odor in fresh material. The taste is said to be nut-like.
The spores measure (7.7-) 9.4 - 12.0 (-14.2) × (7.0-) 8.8 - 11.2 (-13.5) µm and are globose to subglobose and inamyloid. Clamps are not found at bases of basidia.
This mushroom is very often (incorrectly) called A. ceciliae, which is a strictly European taxon originally described from England.
Tulloss nom. prov.
"Northern Sister Ringless Amanita"
borealis, "northern" + sorora, "sister"; hence, "northern sister"—carrying forward the practice of naming taxa similar to A. ceciliae as sisters of Cecilia.
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where data is missing or uncertain.
The following is based on original research of R. E. Tulloss.
55 - 85 mm wide, pallid brown with umbrinous tint (5B3 or 6C3—a washed out brown, not tan) or grayish brown with disc browner , becoming darker with age, sometimes pale cream over marginal striations, broadly campanulate, tacky to subviscid, subshiny to slightly metallic; context white, sordid under pileipellis in disc, not changing when cut or bruised, up to 3.5 mm thick over stipe, thinning evenly for half distance to margin, then a membrane; margin striate (0.2 - 0.4R), nonappendiculate; universal veil as warts and small or (occasionally) large patches with pallid edges, whitish at first, then gray to grayish brown to dark gray to blackish gray, floccose-subpulverulent, detersile; pileipellis apparently very thin.
free, lacking decurrent line on stipe apex, close to subcrowded, off-white (near stipe) and sordid (near pileus margin) or entirely sordid white in mass, sordid white (near stipe) and pale gray (near pileus margin) or entirely sordid white in side view, graying with age, 7.5 - 10 mm broad, with white or whitish and minutely flocculose edge; lamellulae truncate, of widely varying lengths, plentiful, unevenly distributed.
85 - 157 × 6 - 13.5 mm, white to off-white, becoming faintly brownish from handling, narrowing upward, infrequently somewhat flattened, not flaring at apex, with white to grayish flocculence in upper half, with appressed silky patches below becoming dark fibrils on pallid ground, very base with white appressed cottony surface and short white pseudorhizae; context white, not changing when cut or bruised, hollow, with central cylinder up to 7.5 mm wide containing sparse white cottony matter; exannulate; universal veil in loose patches easily left in soil, located against stipe up to 10- - 45 mm from base, pale gray to gray, not plentiful or as one or more friable patches or (often) as a dark gray ring above a white, "strangulate" zone.
Odor none. Taste lacking or pleasant or slightly nut-like.
Spot test for laccase (syringaldazine): negative throughout the basidiome. Spot test for tyrosinase: rapidly positive throughout the basidiome except for scattered spots on lamellae. Test voucher: Tulloss 8-30-98-C.
? µm thick, with strongly gelatinized surface; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 1.8 - 7.2 µm wide, dominantly subradially oriented, densely packed, light yellowish brown in mass; vascular hyphae 1.8 - 16.5 µm wide, rather common, prominent, yellow to yellow-brown, including occasional coils and twists, with irregular outline, infrequently branching.
bilateral; wcs = 30 - 55 µm; subhymenial base containing inflated cells (e.g., 24 × 21 µm, thin-walled, subglobose to elongate), with angle of divergence ?; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae ? µm wide, ?, with inflated intercalary segments (e.g., 54 × 21 µm) in central stratum, with subhymenial base including uninflated and partially inflated hyphal segments, and inflated intercalary cells dominantly divergent at angles between 30° and 60°, with the divergent inflated cells subfusiform to ellipsoid to ovoid to broadly clavate (up to 82 × 33 µm, but most smaller than 55 × 28 µm) and with walls up to ? µm thick; divergent, terminal inflated cells not observed; vascular hyphae ? µm wide, ?.
wst-near = 15 - 40 µm; wst-far = 35 - 60 µm; consisting of 3± inflated cells or uninflated or partially inflated hyphal segments arranged in a branching structure with those nearest bases of basidia having major diameter perpendicular to central stratum, with basidia arising (terminally or laterally) from uninflated or partially inflated short hyphal segments or (terminally) from branched elements or from small inflated cells.
On pileus: with all elements eventually collapsing and gelatinizing; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 2.2 - 7.8 µm wide, plentiful to locally dominant, loosely interwoven, frequently branching, often with yellowish (sometimes rather sordid yellow) subrefractive walls, with walls thin to (often) 0.5 µm thick; inflated cells hyaline, colorless to (more commonly) pale brown at first (brown in mass), then colorless to pale yellowish to pale grayish to pale brown to yellowish brown to brown, plentiful to locally dominant [in immature specimen (Stephenson 93-04), strongly dominant], terminal, singly or (occasionally) in chains of two, globose to subglobose to subpyriform to ovoid to ellipsoid to broadly ellipsoid to broadly clavate to clavate to peanut-shaped, up to 64 × 52 µm (but with major diameter rarely > 55 µm), with walls thin or up to 1.0 µm thick (not easily noted once gelatinization begins); vascular hyphae very infrequent or absent, 2.8 - 6.3 µm wide, otherwise like those of pileipellis. From ring on stipe base: as on pileus, except having slightly larger proportion of filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae and somewhat smaller inflated cells. From patch on stipe: as on pileus, with inflated cells up to 66 × 56 µm.
longitudinally acrophysalidic; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae ? µm wide, ?; acrophysalides ?; vascular hyphae 6.3 - 10.5 µm wide, branching, common (at least near surface).
[80/4/4] (7.7-) 9.4 - 12.0 (-14.2) × (7.0-) 8.8 - 11.2 (-13.5) µm, (L = 10.0 - 11.0 µm; L’ = 10.5 µm; W = 9.3 - 10.5 µm; W’ = 10.0 µm; Q = (1.0-) 1.02 - 1.11 (-1.12); Q = 1.04 - 1.07; Q’ = 1.06), hyaline, thin-walled, smooth, inamyloid, globose to subglobose, adaxially flattened; apiculus sublateral to nearly lateral, cylindric, prominent (up to 3.2 × 3.0 µm); contents monoguttulate with numerous small additional granules; white in deposit.
Solitary to subgregarious. Maine: In dark loam and leaf litter of mixed woods with common Abies. Massachusetts: At 155± m elev. New Jersey: In wet loam of mixed deciduous forest including Acer, Betula, Carpinus caroliniana, Carya ovata, Fagus grandifolia, Liquidambar styraciflua, and Quercus. New York: At 500± m elev. In leaf litter of open, old growth forest including Acer, F. grandifolia, Betula, Prunus, and Tsuga canadensis. Virginia: In moist loamy clay of road bank under Q. alba, Q. sp. (of scarlet oak/pin oak group), Pinus strobus, P. virginiana, and Cornus florida. West Virginia: At [990 -] 1220 m elev. In hardwood forest or in forest of mixed Quercus spp. and other hardwoods or in old growth Abies forest with Betula alleghaniensis or in wet soil of mixed forest including T. canadensis, F. grandifolia, Picea rubens, Betula, Acer, etc.
U.S.A.: CONNECTICUT—New London Co. - Colchester, Day Pond St. Pk. [41°33'25" N/ 72°25'06" W, 134 m], 23.ix.2000 Leon Shernoff s.n. [Tulloss 9-23-00-C] (RET 319-4), 24.viii.2007 Jeff Miller s.n. [Tulloss 8-24-07-J] (RET 440-4). Tolland Co. - Gay City St. Pk. [41°43’23” N/ 72°26’38” W, 209 m], 31.viii.1997 R. E. Tulloss 8-31-97-Na (RET 268-4), -Nb (RET 268-3); Hebron, The Hemlocks Nature Educ. Ctr. [41°37’11” N/ 72°23’22” W, 145-160 m], 21.ix.1996 Benjamin A. Maleson s.n. [Tulloss 9-21-96-F] (RET 250-8). Middlesex Co. - E. Haddam, Devil’s Hopyard St. Pk. [41°28’32” N/ 72°20’25” W, 72 m], 24.viii.2007 R. E. Tulloss 8-24-07-I (RET 439-4), -L (RET 440-3); Meshomasic St. For., 19.ix.1998 Sarah Tulloss & “Michaela” s.n. [Tulloss 9-19-98-B] (RET ??).
MAINE—Penobscot Co. - Orono, prop. Jim Hinds & Orono Land Trust, 11.viii.2007 Jancet Eckardt s.n. [Tulloss 8-11-07-B] (RET 409-9).
MASSACHUSETTS—Worcester Co. - Worcester, Broad Meadow Brook Wildlife Sanctuary [42°14'29" N/ 71°46'46" W, 153 m], 13.viii.1993 Joe Arnold s.n. [Tulloss 8-13-93-A] (RET 095-8).
MINNESOTA—Beltrami Co. - ca. Blackduck, Chippewa Nat. For., Meadow Lk., 25.viii.1995 participant NAMA1995 s.n. [Tulloss 8-25-95-B] (RET 156-2); Chippewa Nat. For., Forest Tr. 3862 (Rt. 39), 25.viii.1995 D. J. McLaughlin s.n. [Tulloss 8-25-95-C] (RET 156-5); Movil Maze Ski Area, 26.viii.1995 participant NAMA1995 s.n. [Tulloss 8-26-95-D] (RET 155-9).
NEW JERSEY—Burlington Co. - Brendan T. Byrne St. Pk. (formerly Lebanon St. For.), 7.ix.1986 R. E. Tulloss 9-7-86-E (RET 117-3).
Mercer Co. - Hopewell Twp., off Carter Road, woods behind AT&T/Lucent research labs [40°21’39” N/ 74°43’29” W, 63 m], 22.vi.1981 R. E. Tulloss 6-22-81-C (RET 167-5), 16.vii.1982 R. E. Tulloss 7-16-82-F (RET 217-4); Washington's Crossing St. Pk., 1.vii.1984 M. A. King & D. C., M. H., & R. E. Tulloss [Tulloss 7-1-84-D] (RET 057-5).
Middlesex Co. - Jamesburg, Jamesburg Twp. Pk., ca. Helmetta Pond [40°23’07” N/ 74°25’48” W], 29.vii.1984 R. E. Tulloss 7-29-84-I (RET 231-1), 4.viii.1990 Geoffrey G. Kibby s.n. [Tulloss 8-4-90-K] (RET 147-2), 17.vii.1991 R. E. Tulloss 7-17-91-A (RET 010-4).
Monmouth Co. - Shark River Co. Pk. [40°12’18” N/ 74°05’44” W, 16 m], 30.ix.1984 participant RET birthday foray s.n. [Tulloss 9-30-84-C] (RET 233-2), 9.viii.1987 NJMA foray participant s.n. [Tulloss 8-9-87-C] (RET 181-3), 7.vii.1991 Mary A. King s.n. [Tulloss 7-7-91-D] (RET 003-5), 30.viii.1998 C. Conover, S. E. K. & R. E. Tulloss [Tulloss] 8-30-98-C (RET 286-10).
Morris Co. - Mendham, Meadowood Twp. Pk. [40°47'31" N/ 74°38'43" W, 214 m], Mary A. King & R. E. Tulloss [Tulloss 7-28-84-F] (RET 051-4).
Warren Co. - Stephens St. Pk., ca. lower picnic area [40°52’22” N/ 74°48’31” W], 4.viii.1996 NJMA foray participant s.n. [Tulloss 8-4-86-K] (RET 228-9).
NEW YORK—Dutchess Co. - Clinton Corners, 12.ix.1990 Wm. Bakaitis 90-189 (RET 011-3). Franklin Co. - Floodwood Mtn. Rd. [44.3476° N/ 74.4424° W, 501 m], 12.viii.2011 Susan Rose s.n. [Tulloss 8-12-11-A] (RET 479-4), Adam Singer s.n. [Tulloss 8-12-11-E] (RET 480-9); Paul Smith's College campus [44°26'02" N/ 74°15'06" W, 500 m],12.viii.2011 S. Ruck s.n. [Tullos 8-12-11-G] (RET 480-4). Unkn. Co. - unkn. loc. in Ulster or Sullivan Co., 19.viii.1994 Stickel s.n. [Tulloss 8-19-94-B] (RET 129-6).
NORTH CAROLINA—Dare Co. - Hatteras Isl., N of Frisco, 17.vii.1981 David C. & R. E. Tulloss 7-17-81-G (RET 170-7). Haywood Co. - GSMNP, Cataloochee sector, vii.2008 D. Viess s.n. (RET 445-9).
PENNSYLVANIA—Pike Co. - Dingman's Ferry, Pocono Environmental Education Ctr. [41°10'17" N/ 74°54'52" W, 235 m], 20.vi.1981 Mary A. King & R. E. Tulloss 6-20-81-C (RET 175-2), 24.vi.1989 NJMA foray participant s.n. [Tulloss 6-24-89-A] (RET 247-8).
SOUTH CAROLINA—Oconee Co. - Seneca [34°46'09" N/ 82°57'55" W, 263 m], 28.xi.1985 R. E. Tulloss 11-28-85-C (RET 130-7).
TEXAS—Hardin Co. - Big Thicket Nat. Preserve, Jack Gore Baygall Unit, 16 km N of Silsbee, 10.vi.2000 G. M. Mueller s.n. [Tulloss 6-10-00-G] (RET 313-3).
VERMONT—Bennington Co. - ca. Bennington, 29.viii.1981 NEMF1981 participant s.n. [Tulloss 8-29-81-E] (RET 166-6).
VIRGINIA—Bath Co. - Douthat St. Pk., 16.vi.1992 R. E. Tulloss 6-16-92-A (RET 061-1). Unkn. Co. - Shenandoah Nat. Pk., ca. Old Rag Rd., Canyon Tr. M.P., s.d. "DH" 101 (LFCC; RET 143-10).
WEST VIRGINIA—Berkeley Co. - Hedgeville, “Sleepy Hollow,” 1.viii.1976 U. Weiss s.n. (BPI 14460B). Marion Co. - Mill Fall Run, 5.x.1993 S. L. Stephenson & D. Binion [Stephenson 93-04] (FWVA). Randolph Co. - Gaudineer Scenic Area, 26.ix.1992 R. P. Bhatt, S. L. Stephenson & A. Kumar A6 (FWVA). Tucker Co. - Canaan Valley St. Pk., Abe Run Tr. ca. E terminus & jct. w/ Deer Run Tr. [39°00’57” N/ 79°27’49” W], 25.vi.1996 R. E. Tulloss 6-25-96-A (RET 181-8); McGowan Mtn. Rd., 18.ix.1992 Dr. R. P. Bhatt & Dr. A. Kumar FMR-3A (FWVA, as "A. cecileae"; RET 126-2).
Each spore data set is intended to comprise a set of measurements from a single specimen made by a single observer;
and explanations prepared for this site talk about specimen-observer pairs associated with each data set.
Combining more data into a single data set is non-optimal because it obscures observer differences
(which may be valuable for instructional purposes, for example) and may obscure instances in which
a single collection inadvertently contains a mixture of taxa.