The original description
of this fungus includes by reference the Latin description of Bresadola
entitled "Amanita strangulata Fr." which is the only
physical description available. It was accompanied by a watercolor the
color of which does not closely match the color given in the physical
description, but this may be due to the quality of the reproduction which
is very grainy. Because of the brevity of the original description, the
unpublished notes of Bas (in Netherlands National Herbarium in Leiden) on
the material he designated as the type of A. biovigera become very
important and with the exception of dimension and color, we have relied a
great deal on these notes.
The cap of A. biovigera is 80 -
100 mm wide, olivaceous gray-brown, campanulate to expanded, sometimes with a
depressed center containing a low broad umbo, subviscid, with a
sulcate-striate margin. Volval remnants are pallid and felted. The flesh
is pale. [Note: The cap color was also recorded on the label of one of
Bresadola's collections as "Pileo alutaceo"-- cap tan. In
addition, Bas reports the intensity of the color of the cap in the dried
condition becomes paler notably from the center to the margin.]
The gills are adnate to free, crowded,
rather narrow, pallid, sometimes with a dark edge. The watercolor shows
the short gills to be truncate.
The stem is 120 - 160 × 11 - 15 mm,
tapering upward, stuffed to hollow, dark umber brown, slightly dark umber
scales in the lower part in a zebroid pattern, fibrillose in the upper
part (the illustration does not indicate a pigment), with an attenuate
base, with rather small fragments of the volva at the stem base (In the
illustration the fragments can range from cupulate to rather large,
flaring, and very irregular). The stipe flesh is pale. No ring is
present. The volva is free,
saccate, irregularly lobed, pallid on the outer surface, umbrinous on the
The taste is said to be pleasant. Odor is said to be undetectable.
According to the original description, the
spores measure 12 - 14 × 9 - 11 µm.
Spore measurements (by Dr. C. Bas) from three
specimens collected by Bresadola including the proposed type are as
follows: (10.8-) 11.2 - 13.9 (-14.4) × (8.2-) 8.3 - 11.5 (-11.7) µm and
are broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid, occasionally subglobose, and inamyloid.
Clamps are absent at bases of basidia.
This species was originally described from Italy. Its habitat is unknown.
Contrary to its name, the present species
predominantly bears four spores per basidium. Apparently Singer had
confused material of A.
pachysperma G. F. Atk. with Bresadola's description and painting. In the Farlow
Herbarium (Harvard Univ.), there are a number of collections marked "A.
biovigera" in Singer's hand. These collections are in fact A. pachysperma. A.
pachysperma does have a large number of two-spored basidia in most
This species has rarely been discussed. We
have extracted information from Dr. Bas' review of the type material and
made it available to the public for the first time on this web page. This
species appears to us to be related to Amanita
malleata (Piane ex Bon) Contu and Amanita
dryophila Consiglio & Contu. In reviewing the existing data in the
preparation of this page, it struck us that Amanita biovigera may
be a taxonomic synonym of A. dryophila. For example, in one
photograph of A. dryophila in its original description, the cap
color is a rather intense brown becoming orange brown away from the center
with a very pale margin; in another photograph, the cap ranges from tan to
orangish-tan over much of the cap in immature material. We cannot help but
note that Bresadola's material that was labeled "juvenilis"
(immature) is the material also labeled "Pileo alutaceo" (cap
tan). If synonymy were demonstrated, the name with priority is Amanita biovigera.—R. E. Tulloss and L. Possiel
The editors of this site owe a great debt to Dr. Cornelis Bas
whose famous cigar box files of Amanita nomenclatural information
gathered over three or more decades were made available to RET for computerization
and make up the lion's share of the nomenclatural information presented on this site.
Due to delays in data processing at GenBank, some accession numbers may lead to unreleased (pending) pages.
These pages will eventually be made live, so try again later.
Tulloss, in progress [syntypes in S]
The following text may make multiple use of each data field.
The field may contain magenta text presenting data from a type study
and/or revision of other original material cited in the protolog of the present taxon.
Macroscopic descriptions in magenta are a combination of data from the protolog and
additional observations made on the exiccata during revision of the cited original
The same field may also contain black text, which is data from a revision of the present
taxon (including non-type material and/or material not cited in the protolog).
Paragraphs of black text will be labeled if further subdivision of
this text is appropriate.
Olive text indicates a specimen that has not been
thoroughly examined (for example, for microscopic details) and marks other places in the text
where data is missing or uncertain.
The following material not directly from the protolog of the present taxon is based on the notes of Dr. C. Bas desposited in L.
From C. Bas' notes on two mature syntypes: [15/2/2] (10.5-) 11.4 - 13.9 (-14.4) × (8.2-) 8.3 - 10.2 (-11.7) μm, (L = 11.9 - 12.9 μm; L' = 12.5 μm; W = 8.6 - 9.7 μm; W' = 9.4 μm; Q = (1.09-) 1.25 - 1.45 (-1.51); Q = 1.33 - 1.35; Q' = 1.34), hyaline, colorless, ??, thin-walled, inamyloid, subglobose to broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid, ??; apiculus rather broad, subtruncate; contents subrefractive, granular, sometimes with vague refractive drops; ?? in deposit.
From C. Bas' notes on all syntypes: [25/3/3] (10.8-) 11.2 - 13.9 (-14.4) × (8.2-) 8.3 - 11.5 (-11.7) μm, (L = 11.7 -12.9 μm; L' = 12.4 μm; W = 6.6 - 10.4 μm; W' = 9.8 μm; Q = (1.07-) 1.08 - 1.45 (-1.51); Q = 1.18 - 1.35; Q' = 1.27).
ITALY: UNKN.—"Boschetto della Villa Salvotti," vi.1901 G. Bresadola s.n. (syntype, S, in herb. Bresadola as "Amanita strangulatasensu Bresadola per C. Bas" as annotated by C. Bas). UNKN.—Castellar [uncertain transcripstion per Bas], x.1901 G. Bresadola s.n. (syntype, S, in herb. Bresadola as "Amanita strangulatasensu Bresadola per C. Bas/ pileo alutaceo/ sp. 12-15 × 9-10 μ" as annotated by C. Bas).
—R. E. Tulloss
Information to support the viewer in reading the content of "technical" tabs
can be found here.
Each spore data set is intended to comprise a set of measurements from a single specimen made by a single observer;
and explanations prepared for this site talk about specimen-observer pairs associated with each data set.
Combining more data into a single data set is non-optimal because it obscures observer differences
(which may be valuable for instructional purposes, for example) and may obscure instances in which
a single collection inadvertently contains a mixture of taxa.