1. Amanita austroviridis, Western Australia, Australia.
The following description is based on Miller (1992).
Amanita austroviridis occurs entirely buried in sand and the cap does not appear above the surface
until the mushroom is well above maturity. The cap is 42 - 76 mm wide,
olive-buff, broadly convex, planar or sometimes slightly depressed in the center, sometimes with margin flaring up in age, dry, not becoming
tacky when moistened, with a nonstriate and appendiculate margin. The volva
is present as numerous, small, flat patches tinted olive-buff to
olivaceous-gray. The flesh is light green or light gray tinted olivaceous.
The gills are free or narrowly attached, green, drying dark green (close to the fresh color), very
broad in age, with edges distinctly fimbriate. The short gills are present in at least two tiers, one tier extending half-way to
The stem is 50 - 65 × 12 - 20 mm, expanding subabruptly to a turnip-shaped bulb, up to 30 - 33 mm. The
surface is dry, buff with a faint olivaceous tint to olive buff. The lower part of the bulb is inserted in the substrate and tapers to a blunt
base. The ring forms a fragile, flaring skirt near the gills or is present only as appressed scales on the top of the stem. The
ring is striate on the upper surface and olive buff. The flesh is pale olive buff,
sometimes discolored in the stem base, becoming dull olive in older specimens.
The odor is "stale and unpleasant."
The spores measure (9.2-) 10 - 12.6 × 5 - 6.7 µm and are ellipsoid to elongate to cylindric and amyloid.
Clamps are probably present at bases of basidia, frequency is unknown.
Originally described from state of Western Australia in association with a shrub dominated community included, Eucalyptus (coastal jarrah), Agonis, Allocasuarina, Hakea, and Oxylobium.
Miller notes that the extraordinary green gill color remains bright "in dried material of all ages making it easier to recognize the dried specimens of A. austroviridis." Miller observes that the present species is assignable to subsection Solitaria within section Lepidella.
It seems possible to place A. austroviridis within Bas' (1969) stirps Grossa. It seems particularly similar to Amanita ochroterrea Gentilli ex Bas. This species is described as buff with dingy buff to dark buff gills. The form of the basal bulb of A. ochroterrea is very similar to that of A. austoviridis. The spores are also a very similar shape and size. In both cases the cap surface shows minimal gelatinization. [This is why moistening the cap of A. austroviridis does not make the cap tacky to the touch.] Both species have a weakly structured ring and both share a generally stocky appearance. Bas records that the volva remains completely cover the cap even at maturity in A. ochroterrea. This suggests that hyphal connection between the volva and the cap are never severed.
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PERTH; isotype, VPI
The following text may make multiple use of each data field.
The field may contain magenta text presenting data from a type study
and/or revision of other original material cited in the protolog of the present taxon.
Macroscopic descriptions in magenta are a combination of data from the protolog and
additional observations made on the exiccata during revision of the cited original
The same field may also contain black text, which is data from a revision of the present
taxon (including non-type material and/or material not cited in the protolog).
Paragraphs of black text will be labeled if further subdivision of
this text is appropriate.
Olive text indicates a specimen that has not been
thoroughly examined (for example, for microscopic details) and marks other places in the text
where data is missing or uncertain.
The following material is derived from the protolog of the present species.
from protolog: Basidiomes robust, medium-sized.
from protolog: 42 - 76 mm wide, broadly convex, plane or slightly plano-depressed to convex in age, dry and remaining dry when moistened, olive-buff (2B-C3-4, 3B3-4); margin smooth with appendiculate with remains of partial veil when very young, absent in age; context light green in pileus (1B4-5) or dull white tinted olivaceous; universal veil as numerous, small, flat patches often heavily sand-covered, tinted olive-buff (2B4) to oliveaceous grey (3D3-4).
from protolog: free or narrowly attached, very broad in age, green (1C4-5 to 2E6-7), drying dark green, close to fresh color, with edges distinctly fimbriate; lamellulae in two tiers, with one tier reaching half way to stipe.
from protolog: 50 - 65 × 12 - 20 mm wide (width measured below lamellae), dry, buff (3A2) with faint olivaceous tint to olive-buff (1B4); bulb abruptly napiform, 30 – 33 mm wide, with lower part encased in sand, tapering to blunt rooting base; context pale olive-buff (1B4), sometimes discolored in the stipe base, becoming dull olive in older specimens; partial veil fragile, flaring, skirt-like, superior or remaining as imbricate, appressed, scales on upper stipe; striate above, olive-buff (1B4), flaring slightly at free edge; universal veil not described.
from protolog: Odor stale and unpleasant. Taste not recorded.
from protolog: up to 210 - 230 um thick, light yellowish throughout in KOH, suprapellis yellow-brown in Melzer's Reagent; subpellis hyaline in Melzer's reagent; comprising tightly interwoven filamentous hyphae 1.7 - 4.2 um wide, equal, thin-walled; clamps present.
from protolog: filamentous hyphae 1.7 - 5 um wide; acrophysalides irregular, ovoid to vesiculose, 9.2 - 42 um wide, thin-walled, hyaline; clamps scattered.
from protolog: [Bilateral;] divergent; hyphae 1.7 - 8.4 um wide, thin-walled, hyaline in 3% KOH, light ochraceous in Melzer’s reagent; clamps numerous.
from protolog: "textura intricata" of short irregular thin-walled cells 3.4 - 9.2 µm wide; clamps not observed.
from protolog: 50 - 60 × 11 - 12 µm, clavate, hyaline, thin-walled, four-sterimage with sterigmata 4 - 5 µm long. [Note: Clamps almost certainly present.—ed.]
from protolog: filamentous hyphae 3 - 7 µm wide, numerous, hyaline; inflated cells less common, hyaline, ovoid to pyriform to elliptic or elongate-elliptic, thin-walled, usually terminal, 22 - 45 × 18 - 30 µm; clamps present.
not described in protolog.
from protolog: filamentous hyphae 1.7 - 4.2 µm wide, thin-walled, hyaline, many collapsed; inflated cells numerous, pyriform to ovoid, thin-walled, 17 - 41 × 9 - 15.5 µm; clamps sparse.
lamella edge tissue
from protolog: inflated cells 16 - 38 × 9 - 18 µm, pyriform to ovoid, sometimes "nearly capitate," thin-walled, hyaline. [Note: originally misdescribed by Miller as "cheilocystidia."—ed.]
from protolog: [-/-/-] (9.2-) 10.0 - 12.6 × 5.0 - 6.7 μm, (Q = 1.52 - 2.30; Q' = 1.88), thin-walled, amyloid, ellipsoid to elongate to cylindric;; apiculus "small"; contents not recorded; pure white in deposit.
from protolog: In small groups "or gregarious, in nearly pure sandy soil, often buried in sand and nearly covered when young. Australia: Under "dense, shrub-dominated community with coastal jarah (Eucalyptus marginata subsp. marginata) ..., Agonis parviceps Schauer, Oxylobium lanceolatum (Bent.) Druce, Hakia spp., and Allocasuarina fraseriana."
WESTERN AUSTRALIA—Shire of Albany - Two Peoples Bay Nature Reserve, 7.vi.1991 O. K. Miller 24785 (holotype, PERTH; isotype, VPI), 7.vi.1991 O. K. Miller 24790 (paratype, VPI), vi.1990 K. Syme 49 (paratype, VPI), 25.vi.1991 O. K. Miller 24946 (paratype, VPI), s.d. unkn. coll. s.n. [WA 1827] (paratype, PERTH).
from protolog: "The lamellae remain bright green in dried material of all ages making it very easy to recognize the dried specimens of A. austroviridis. The species...may represent a unique association with the coastal form of jarrah, or possibly with Agonis parviceps or Allocasuarina fraseriana. The description of fresh material was based on OKM 24785 and OKM 24946. Collection WA 1827 now at PERTH was in the Hilton Herbarium accompanied by a color photograph of the specimen. Paintings of Syme 48/90 (PERTH) and OKM 24946 (VPI) were done by Katie Syme."
The editors express their thanks to Dr. Elaine Davison for her assistance with Western Australia geographical and other data relating to Miller's original materials of this taxon.
—R. E. Tulloss
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O. K. Mill.
"Australian Virdigris Lepidella"
1. Amanita austroviridis, Western Australia, Australia.
Each spore data set is intended to comprise a set of measurements from a single specimen made by a single observer;
and explanations prepared for this site talk about specimen-observer pairs associated with each data set.
Combining more data into a single data set is non-optimal because it obscures observer differences
(which may be valuable for instructional purposes, for example) and may obscure instances in which
a single collection inadvertently contains a mixture of taxa.