The cap of Amanita altipes is 40 -
90 mm wide, convex to plano-convex, non-appendiculate,
with a tuberculate-striate margin. The cap is yellowish
to yellow, often with brownish tinge over disk, and a
pale yellow margin. The flesh is white. The volva is
present as felty, floccose patches, 2 - 5 mm wide and up
to 1 mm thick; these remnants are yellowish to yellow to
dirty yellow, and often are washed away by rain or
completely retained in the soil.
The gills are free, crowded, and
white to cream-colored to yellowish . The short gills are
truncate, plentiful, and evenly distributed.
The stem is 90 - 160 × 5 - 18 mm,
subcylindric, yellowish, becoming whitish towards the
stem base. The volva is present as yellow to yellowish
floccose patches or warts.
The spores measure 8.0 - 10.0 × 7.5
- 9.5 µm and are globose to subglobose and inamyloid.
There are no clamps present at the bases of basidia.
The species occurs on soil under
Fir, Spruce, Oak, Birch and/or Willow and fruits from
August to September in southwestern China at 2700-4000 m
elev.—Zhu L. Yang
Zhu L. Yang, M. Weiss & Oberw. 2004. Mycologia 96: 636.
14.viii.2000 Zhu L. Yang 2915 (holotype, HKAS 36609)
Zhang et al. (2004), Key Lab. Biodivers. Biogeogr., Kunming Inst. Bot., Yunnan, China
The following text may make multiple use of each data field.
The field may contain magenta text presenting data from a type study
and/or revision of other original material cited in the protolog of the present taxon.
Macroscopic descriptions in magenta are a combination of data from the protolog and
additional observations made on the exiccata during revision of the cited original
The same field may also contain black text, which is data from a revision of the present
taxon (including non-type material and/or material not cited in the protolog).
Paragraphs of black text will be labeled if further subdivision of
this text is appropriate.
Olive text indicates a specimen that has not been
thoroughly examined (for example, for microscopic details) and marks other places in the text
where data is missing or uncertain.
The following material is entirely derived from the protolog of the present taxon.
NOTE: Spore data from papers by Z. L. Yang are presented following his use of the "Times New Roman" face for "Q" and "Q'"—respectively, "Q" and "Q."
from protolog: Basidiomes small to medium-sized.
from protolog: 40 - 90 mm wide, convex to plano-convex, broadly umbonate, yellowish to yellow (Apricot Yellow, Colonial Buff, Mustard Yellow, Straw Yellow, Warm Buff, 3A4-8), often with brownish tinge (Cinnamon-Buff, Orange-Cinnamon, 5C6-8, 5D6-8) over disk, pale yellow (Pale Orange-Yellow, Light Orange-Yellow, 3A2-5) in marginal region, viscid when wet; context white, unchanging; margin tuberculate-striate (0.1 – 0.4R), nonappendiculate; universal veil as felty, floccose patches, 2 - 5 mm wide, up to 1 mm thick, yellowish to yellow to dirty yellow (Colonial Buff, Maize Yellow, Buff-Yellow, 3A2-5), randomly arranged, often washed away by rain or retained in substrate.
from protolog: free, crowded, white to cream-colored to yellowish (Cartridge Buff, Cream Color, Maize Yellow, 2A1-4), with yellowish to yellow edges; lamellulae truncate, plentiful, evenly distributed.
from protolog: 90 - 160 × 5 - 18 mm, subcylindric or narrowing upward, with apex slightly expanded, yellowish (Straw Yellow, Light Orange-Yellow, 2A2 - 4, 3A2 - 4), but becoming whitish toward stipe base, covered with yellow to yellowish (Apricot Yellow, Mustard Yellow, Straw Yellow, 3A4 - 8) squamules above annulus, with yellowish to whitish squamules or fibrils below annulus; context white, hollow; bulb subglobose to ovate, 8 - 32 mm wide, white to pallid; partial veil persistent, pendent from attachment 10 - 30 mm below stipe apex, with upper surface cream-colored to yellowish (Cream Color, paler than Maize Yellow, 2A2-4), with lower surface yellowish, with yellow edge; universal veil as yellow to yellowish (Apricot Yellow, Mustard Yellow, Straw Yellow, 3A6-8) floccose patches or warts near apex of bulb, occasionally forming short limb.
from protolog: Odor and taste indistinct.
from protolog: 100 - 150 µm thick; suprapellis (30 - 100 µm thick) strongly gelatinized, composed of subradially arranged, 2 - 3 (-5) µm wide, thin-walled, colorless to subcolorless, filamentous hyphae, often with fine granular incrustations; subpellis (50 - 70 µm thick) composed of radially and compactly arranged, 3 - 5 µm wide hyphae, subcolorless or with yellowish vacuolar pigments; vascular hyphae rare, 3 - 7 µm wide.
bilateral, divergent; mediostratum 50 - 70 µm wide, composed of abundant fusiform to subellipsoid inflated cells (70 - 90 × 15 - 30 µm) mixed with abundant, 2 - 6 (-8) µm wide filamentous hyphae; vascular hyphae rare; lateral strata composed of abundant clavate to subellipsoid inflated cells (50 - 90 × 10 - 25 µm), diverging at an angle of ca. 30 - 45°; filamentous hyphae abundant, 3 - 7 µm wide; clamps absent.
from protolog: 20 - 40 um thick, with 2 - 3 layers of ovoid to subellipsoid to irregularly formed cells, 9 - 25 × 8 -20 µm.
from protolog: On pileus, below outer surface: composed of subradially to somewhat irregularly arranged elements; filamentous hyphae fairly abundant to abundant, becoming more abundant toward the pileal surface, 2 - 7 µm wide, thin-walled, colorless, hyaline, branching, interwoven, sometimes anastomosing; inflated cells abundant to very abundant, ovoid to subglobose (35 - 60 × 30 - 55 µm) to broadly ellipsoid (40 - 65 × 25 - 35 µm) to long ellipsoid (45 - 90 × 15 - 35 µm), sometimes broadly clavate (60 - 70 × 28 - 35 µm), terminal singly and or in chains of 2 - 3, with walls thin to slightly thickened (up to 1 µm thick), colorless to subcolorless; vascular hyphae rare. On pileus, outer surface: as 10 - 30 µm thick layer composed of gelatinized and collapsed yellowish to brownish hyphae, mixed with collapsed or uncollapsed inflated cells similar to those in the interior. On stipe base: composed of rather irregularly arranged elements; filamentous hyphae abundant to very abundant to locally nearly dominant, 2 - 7 (-15) µm wide, with walls thin to slightly thickened (ca. 0.5 µm thick), colorless, hyaline, sometimes with yellowish vacuolar pigments; inflated cells abundant to locally very abundant, subglobose to ovoid (20 - 60 × 15 - 50 µm) to ellipsoid (30 - 90 × 12 - 35 µm), terminal singly or in chains of 2 - 3, colorless, hyaline, occasionally with yellowish vacuolar pigments, with walls thin to slightly thickened (up to 1 µm); vascular hyphae rare.
from protolog: longitudinally acrophysalidic; acrophysalides 260 - 450 × 25 - 40 µm; filamentous hyphae scattered (in interior) to fairly abundant (on stipe surface), 2 - 7 (-12) µm wide; vascular hyphae rare, 3 - 10 µm wide.
from protolog: filamentous hyphae loosely and subradially arranged, 2 - 5 (-8) µm wide, thin-walled, anastomosing, rare. Upper surface of annulus gelatinized, elements often with yellow to yellowish vacuolar pigments and incrustations.
lamella edge tissue
from protolog: appearing as sterile and somewhat gelatinized strip 100 - 150 µm wide in side view, composed of abundant clavate to broadly clavate (30 - 40 × 10 - 20 µm) or ovoid to subglobose (18 - 25 × 14 - 20 µm) to ellipsoid (18 - 25 × 8 - 15 µm) inflated cells, single and terminal or in chains of 2 - 3, thin-walled, hyaline or with yellowish vacuolar pigments.
from protolog: Solitary to scattered. At 2700 - 4000 m elev. On soil under Abies, Picea, Quercus, Betula, and/or Salix.
from protolog: CHINA:
SICHUAN—Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture - Luding Co., Moxi, 23.viii.1997 D. S. Hibbett 97-183 (paratype, FH). Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture - Hongyuan Co., Kangle, 11.viii.1998 M. S. Yuan 3263 (paratype, HKAS 33847).
XIZANG AUTONOMOUS REGION (TIBET)—Nyingchi Prefecture - Bomi Co., Guxiang, 12.ix.1982 X. L. Mao 419 (paratype, HMAS 52601, as A citrina in (Mao 1990)).
YUNNAN—Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture - Shangri La Co.(formerly Zhongdian Co.), Daxueshan, 23.viii.2000 Zhu L. Yang 2992 (paratype, HKAS 36596), 24.viii.2000 Zhu L. Yang 3007 (paratype, HKAS 36606); Shangri La Co.(formerly Zhongdian Co.), Tianchi, 20.viii.2000 Zhu L. Yang 2951 (paratype, HKAS 36590). Lijiang (prefecture level) City - Yulong Nakhi Autonomous County, Laojunshan, 14.viii.2000 Zhu L. Yang 2915 (holotype, HKAS 36609).
from protolog: Amanita altipes, belonging in Amanita [subgenus Amanita] section Amanita (Yang 1997), resembles A. orientigemmata Zhu L. Yang & Yoshim. Doi and A. pantherina var. lutea W. F. Chiu, both originally described from East Asia. However, A. altipes differs from A. orientigemmata by its more slender basidiomes with a superior annulus, wider basidiospores and radially to somewhat irregularly arranged elements with rare vascular hyphae in the volval remnants on the pileus, and absence of clamps (Yang and Doi 1999). The basidiospores of A. orientigemmata are (7.5-) 8.0 - 10.0 (-11.0) × (6.0-) 6.5 - 7.5 (-8.0) µm (Q = (1.07-) 1.15 - 1.46 (-1.59); Q = 1.30 ± 0.01) (Yang and Doi 1999). Amanita pantherina var. lutea is distinguished from A. altipes by its whitish to grayish warts on the pileus, paler-colored gills, and proportionately narrower basidiospores with higher Q ratio. Chiu (1948) described the basidiospores of A. pantherina var. lutea as (8-) 9 - 10 × 6 - 7 µm, and Yang (1997) reported the basidiospores of A. pantherina var. lutea as (8) 9 - 10 × 6 -7 µm, and Yang (1997) reported the basidiospores are (8.0-) 8.5 - 11.5 (-12.5) × (6.0-) 7.0 - 8.5 (-9.5) µm (Q = (1.06-) 1.13 - 1.47 (-1.53), and Q = 1.29 ± 0.11). Furthermore, the warts on the pileus of A. pantherina var. lutea are composed of more or less vertically arranged filamentous hyphae and inflated cells (Yang 1997).
Species in the section Amanita having yellow to yellowish pilei and exhibiting some morphological similarities to A. altipes are A. elata (Massee) Corner & Bas, A. gemmata (Fr.) Bertillon, A. russuloides (Peck) Sacc., and A. xylinivolva Tulloss, Ovrebo & Halling. However, A. elata, originally described from Singapore, differs from A. altipes by its more or less umber or fuliginous pileal disk, exannulate stipe, unpleasant odor, and smaller basidiospores (Corner & Bas 1962). The basidiospores of A. elata are 7.0 - 8.5 × (6.0) 6.8 - 7.7 µm (Q = 1.0 - 1.1 (-1.2)) (Corner and Bas 1962). Amanita gemmata, originally described from Europe, differs from A. altipes by its relatively shorter stipe, white volval remnants with fewer inflated cells and basidiospores with higher Q ratio. Breitenbach and Kränzlin (1995) reported the basidiospores of A. gemmata are 8.9 - 10.8 × 6.8 - 8.7 µm (Q = 1.1 - 1.4). Yang and Doi (1999) reported the spores of A. gemmata are (9.0-) 9.5 - 12.0 (-13.0) × (6.0-) 6.5 - 8.5 (-9.0) µm (Q = (1.17-) 1.25 - 1.62 (-1.77); Q = 1.42 ± 0.13). Amanita russuloides, originally described from North America, differs from A. altipes by its white, warty volval remnants on the pileus, white stipe and narrower basidiospores (Jenkins 1977, Tulloss et al. 1995). The basidiospores of A. russulloides are 8.7 - 10.2 × 6.3 - 7.0 µm according to Jenkins (1977). Tulloss et al. (1995) reported the basidiospores of A. russuloides are (8.7) 9.8 - 10.5 (10.8) × 6.6 - 7.7 µm. Amanita xylinivolva, originally described from Colombia, has fruit bodies without a pileal umbo, white to off-white to dingy gray volval remnants, whitish buff lamellae and a marked to abrupt bulb (Tulloss et al. 1992).
In China [prior to its description] A. altipes probably was regarded as A. pantherina (DC. : Fr.) Krombh. originally described from Europe. But the latter is distinguished from the former by its brownish to brown pileus with white verrucose to subconical volval remnants, a proportionately shorter stipe, and broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid basidiospores. Breitenbach and Kränzlin (1995) reported the basidiospores of A. pantherina are 8.9 - 11.5 × 7.0 - 8.4 µm (Q = 1.2 - 1.5). In addition, in A. pantherina the volval remnants on the pileus are composed of vertically arranged elements (unpublished data of Yang studying material from the Netherlands, Bas 7474 (L)). HMAS 52601 was regarded incorrectly as A. citrina (Schaeff.) Pers. by Mao (1990), but the European A. citrina has, among other features, a nonstriate pileus, a subabrupt bulb on the stipe base and amyloid basidiospores (Breitenbach and Kränzlin 1995).
—Zhu L. Yang
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