The following description is base on Gilbert (1941)
and the notes deposited with the type collection.
The cap of Amanita alliodora is 50 mm wide, fleshy,
olivaceous-gray with a pallid margin, convex then planar, with a nonstriate margin.
Volva absent from cap.
The gills are crowded, free, white. Short gills are present.
The stem is 50 - 60 × 6 mm, glabrous,
slightly striate above the ring, and white. The volva is bulbous, white membranous,
limbate, with an upper limb 30 mm from the bulb. The bulbous base is
smooth, ellipsoid and not abrupt (based on the original sketch of
Raymond Decary), up to 20 mm wide, and marginate. The ring is
membranous, striate on the top, and skirt-like.
The cap smells distinctly of garlic. Gilbert (1941) reports that indigenous people used the extremely strong
odor of garlic of this mushroom to stop headaches, although they
considered the mushroom itself to be toxic.
The spores measure 7 - 8 µm and are subglobose and amyloid. Gilbert's (1941) drawings of spores sometimes do
not match the information provided in his descriptions. In this case,
the lengths range from 8.7 - 9.5 µm. No spores are positioned in side
view, so no reliable information on the width can be obtained. Basidia probably lacking
clamps because of its assigned section.
Originally described from Madagascar, Africa under
In addition to information about use of the fungus
by indigenous people, R Heim reported to
Gilbert some additional characteristics of A.
alliodora. R. Heim stated that the cap is
viscid when moist, the gills have a rose-cream
color, and his spore measurements were 8 - 8.6 µm
in diameter. He further reported that the
mushroom had a bitter taste. The abrupt bulb
suggested to Gilbert that the species should be
placed near Amanita
mappa. Today the latter taxon is placed
in section Validae. Deadly toxicity is
not known to occur in section Validae.
On the other hand, a strong garlic odor, is most
commonly reported in species in sections
Phalloideae.—R. E. Tulloss
The editors of this site owe a great debt to Dr. Cornelis Bas
whose famous cigar box files of Amanita nomenclatural information
gathered over three or more decades were made available to RET for computerization
and make up the lion's share of the nomenclatural information presented on this site.
26.i.2014 Daniel S. Newman, E. Randrianjohany, R. Letsara, V. Razafindrahaja & Lesabotsy [Newman DSN062] (SFSU; TANA)
L. V. Kudzma, Annandale, NJ
The following text may make multiple use of each data field.
The field may contain magenta text presenting data from a type study
and/or revision of other original material cited in the protolog of the present taxon.
Macroscopic descriptions in magenta are a combination of data from the protolog and
additional observations made on the exiccata during revision of the cited original
The same field may also contain black text, which
is data from a revision of the present
taxon (including non-type material and/or material
not cited in the protolog).
Paragraphs of black text will be labeled if further subdivision of
this text is appropriate.
Olive text indicates a specimen that has not been
thoroughly examined (for example, for microscopic details) and marks other places in the text
where data is missing or uncertain.
The following information is derived from the
protolog, from (Gilbert
1941), from (Dujarric de la Riviere and Heim
and from molecular studies by Dr. L. V. Kudzma and
from other original research by R. E. Tulloss
and D. S. Newman.
protolog: 50 mm wide, grayish
olivaceous over disc, paler at margin, convex at
first, then planar, dry; context fleshy;
margin nonstriate; universal veil
absent. [Note: a stylized drawing
deposited with the type shows the cap as broadly
RET/DSN: gray-olive, darkest over disc and becoming
paler toward white marginal zone
(20±% of radius), with pigmented
region virgate outside of disc, 34+ mm
wide, at maturity plano-convex with central
depression including distinct umbo; context
not recorded, ca. 2-3 mm thick over stipe, probably
thinning evenly to margin; margin
nonstriate; universal veil absent.
protolog: free, not very
crowded, white; lamellulae
RET/DSN: free to narrowly attached, close, white in mass,
white in side view, width and shape not recorded,
with concolorous edge minutely fimbriate-pulverulent;
lamellulae truncate to attenuate, plentiful,
rather evenly distributed, of diverse lengths.
protolog: 50 - 60 × 6 mm,
white, polished, subtly striate above
partial veil, undecorated below; bulb abrupt,
globose, up to 20 mm wide, marginate;
partial veil membranous, superior, pendulous,
rather narrow, striate above, with entire margin;
universal veil limbate,
intimately connected to bulb, white, with highest
point ca. 30 mm from base of bulb.
[Note: In the drawing deposited with the type, the
bulb is shown as subabrupt with the volva limb
attached near the bulb's margin and, hence,
distinctly separated from the stipe
RET/DSN: 68± × 4 mm, white, smooth below
partial veil; context not
described; bulb 11±
× 8 mm, with obconic base; partial veil
6 - 10± mm below stipe apex, 3 - 8±
mm wide from
attachment to margin, white, membranous, thin,
persistent, collapsing on stipe,
proportionately small; universal veil as
membranous limb, white, originally upstanding and
distinctly separated from stem,
eventually collapsing on stipe, with highest point
of limb 25+ mm above very base of bulb.
[Note: since the dividing line between the stem and
bulb is covered by the volval limb in extant photos,
it more accurate to say that the total length of the
stem and bulb combined is 79±
distinctly and persistently of garlic.
Taste not recorded.
Dujarric de la Riviére and Heim (1938):
Dujarric de la Riviére and Heim
Considered toxic by indigenous informants.
RET: ?? × 10.5 - 13.0 μm,
dominantly 4-, infrequently 2-sterimgate, with
sterigmata up to 5.2 × 2.2 μm,
data from holotype :
[2/1/1] (8.3-) 8.5 - 8.7 (-9.6)
× 7.9 - 8.4 (-8.8) μm, (L =
?? μm; L' =
?? μm; W =
?? μm; W' =
Q = (1.02-) 1.03 - 1.10 (-1.11); Q =
??; Q' =
hyaline, colorless, smooth,
globose[?] to subglobose to broadly ellipsoid[?];
apiculus sublateral, cylindric;
contents not described; white in
data from 1937 collection by Heim: [3/1/1]
(7.3-) 8.4 - 9.0 × (7.1-) 7.8 - 8.0 μm,
(L = ?? μm;
L' = ?? μm;
W = ?? μm;
W' = ?? μm;
Q = (1.0-) 1.04 - 1.16; Q =
??; Q' =
globose to subglobose to broadly ellipsoid.
RET: [40/1/1] (7.7-) 7.8 - 9.3 (-10.0) × (6.3-)
6.5 - 8.1 (-9.0) μm, (L = 8.6 μm;
L' = 8.6 μm; W = 7.4 μm;
W' = 7.4 μm; Q = (1.08-) 1.09 - 1.26
(-1.38); Q= 1.17;
Q' = 1.17), hyaline, colorless,
smooth, thin-walled, amyloid, subglobose to broadly
ellipsoid, rarely ellipsoid, adaxially more or less
apiculus sublateral, cylindric, small;
contents granular to mono- to multiguttulate;
color in deposit not recorded.
[Note: The most reliable information on spores of
the holotype and the other pre-1940 collections is
derived from the text and illustrations (Tab.
XXXIV, figs. 5-6) of Gilbert
1941). The best size-shape information is
derived from measuring the scale drawings of
spores in the above cited figures. On the
other hand, of the five spores drawn from the
holotype (fig. 5), at most two could be interpreted
to be drawn in lateral view. The 6 spore
drawings from the Heim collection (fig. 6) include
3 that might be interpreted to be in lateral
protolog: Solitary. In
thorny[?] underbrush, on sandy soil.
RET/DSN: MADAGASCAR, REPUBLIC OF:
Alaotra-Mangora Reg., Moramanga Dept., Andasibe
Community, Vohimana Forest, Piste '2', 26.i.2014
Daniel S. Newman, E. Randrianjohany, R. Letsara, V.
Razafindrahaja & Lesabotsy [Newman DSN062]
(TANA, nrITS seq'd.).
The recent collection of Newman et al. (Newman
conforms rather closely to the protolog of the
present species and the stylized
illustration deposited with the type
material. This collection yielded
an nrITS sequence supporting its inclusion in sect.
Phalloideae with closest matches to
sp-Kerala01 (5.7% genetic distance) and to
(5.8% genetic distance). The latter species is
known to contain amatoxins. An nrLSU sequence
(over 1400 characters) from
the same specimen has a closest BLAST match in GenBank
with A. marmorata (1.6% genetic distance).
According to Dujarric de la Riviére and Heim
indigenous informants report that the species is
poisonous and that its strong odor will cure
—R. E. Tulloss, L. V. Kudzma, D. S. Newman,
J. E. Shay and E. Randrianjohany
Information to support the viewer in reading the content of "technical" tabs
can be found here.
Daniel S. Newman - (1-3) Vohimana Forest, Andasibe
Community, Moramanga Department, Alaotra-Mangora
Region, Madagascar. (Newman DSN062) [Note:
The images are copyrighted by the photographer.
The untrimmed originals of these images can be view
at < www.mushroomobserver.org >.]
Each spore data set is intended to comprise a set of measurements from a single specimen made by a single observer;
and explanations prepared for this site talk about specimen-observer pairs associated with each data set.
Combining more data into a single data set is non-optimal because it obscures observer differences
(which may be valuable for instructional purposes, for example) and may obscure instances in which
a single collection inadvertently contains a mixture of taxa.