=Amanita muscaria var. coccinea Beardslee. 1902. J. Elisha Mitchell Scient. Soc. 12: 8, pl. 3.
The editors of this site owe a great debt to Dr. Cornelis Bas
whose famous cigar box files of Amanita nomenclatural information
gathered over three or more decades were made available to RET for computerization
and make up the lion's share of the nomenclatural information presented on this site.
A. parcivolvata—Jenkins. 1977. Biblioth. Mycol. 57: 95. A. parcivolvata—Jenkins. 1978a. Mycotaxon 7: 36.
A. parcivolvata—Jenkins. 1977. Biblioth. Mycol. 57: 75.
The following text may make multiple use of each data field.
The field may contain magenta text presenting data from a type study
and/or revision of other original material cited in the protolog of the present taxon.
Macroscopic descriptions in magenta are a combination of data from the protolog and
additional observations made on the exiccata during revision of the cited original
The same field may also contain black text, which is data from a revision of the present
taxon (including non-type material and/or material not cited in the protolog).
Paragraphs of black text will be labeled if further subdivision of
this text is appropriate.
Olive text indicates a specimen that has not been
thoroughly examined (for example, for microscopic details) and marks other places in the text
where data is missing or uncertain.
The following material not directly from the protolog of the present taxon and not cited as the work of another researcher is based on original research by R. E. Tulloss.
30 - 67 mm wide, orange red with deeper red over disk or vivid red-orange (8-9A8), sometimes fading, hemispheric to broadly campanulate, dull, tacky; context white with broad bright yellow band adjacent to pileipellis, 2.5 - 4 mm thick at stipe, thinning evenly and becoming a membrane in the last few mm of radius; margin striate (0.25 - 0.4R), nonappendiculate; universal veil as crumb-like to subpyramidal warts, sometimes with raised edges, detersile, pulverulent, yellow at first, paling to off-white or cream or beige, may become sordid or dingy with age.
free with faint decurrent line on apex of stipe (lens), ??, yellow in mass (due to yellow pulverulence on edge), white in side view, 3 - 8 mm broad; lamellulae truncate.
20 - 43 × 10 - 13 mm, yellow (2A5-6) pulverulence above shading to orange (6A4) below, unchanging or browning from handling, cylindric or narrowing slightly upward, surface minutely tomentose above (lens) to pulverulent, pulverulent to fibrillose and longitudinal striation below; context white, unchanging when cut or bruised, solid to irregularly stuffed, with central cylinder 3 mm wide, larva tunnels off-white to rusty brown; bulb 21 - 22 × 16.5 - 19 mm, subnapiform, mostly white to whitish; exannulate; universal veil as warts above bulb, often in irregular rings, detersile, colored as on pileus.
neither is recorded.
spot test for laccase (syringaldazine) - negative in all parts of basidiome at stage of development; spot test for tyrosinace (paracresol) - positive throughout basidiome at intermediate stage of development excepting universal veil and developing most slowly in lamellae. Test voucher: Tulloss 9-9-99-K.
Jenkins (1978a): On pileus: not described. On stipe base: filamentous undifferentiated hyphae very sparse, 2 - 6 μm wide, moderately branched; inflated cells up to 70 %times; 64 μm, globose to subglobose to ovoid to broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid to clavate, usually in randomly oriented terminal chains; clamps rare.
Jenkins (1978a): filamentous undifferentiated hyphae inconspicuous; acrophysalides clavate to oblong-ellipsoid, up to 222 × 64 μm.
Jenkins (1978a): [-/-/1]
11 - 11.8 × 6.3 - 7.9 μm, (Q = 1.39 - 1.75; Q' = 1.52),
hyaline, thin-walled, nonamyloid, ellipsoid to elongate, often adaxially flattened; apiculus sublateral, cylindric to truncate-conic; contents guttulate;
color in deposit not recorded.
composite of data from all material revised by RET: [87/5/4] (8.4-) 9.1 - 11.5 (-12.6) × (5.6-) 6.3 - 7.9 (-8.0) µm, (L = 9.9 - 10.9 µm; L’ = 10.4 µm; W = 6.7 - 7.3 µm; W’ = 7.0 µm; Q = (1.26-) 1.31 - 1.64 (-1.67); Q = 1.38 - 1.55; Q’ = 1.48), thin-walled, smooth, hyaline, inamyloid, ellipsoid to elongate, occasionally broadly ellipsoid; apiculus sublateral, cylindric to truncate-conic; contents mono- to multiguttulate, often with numerous additional small granules; ?? in deposit.
Solitary to gregarious to subcespitose. New Jersey: In dark loam of closed canopy deciduous forest including Quercus alba, Q. rubra, Carya, Ostrya, Betula, Acer, Liquidambar styraciflua, and Liriodendron tulipifera with little understory. Pennsylvania: Under Quercus, Acer, Prunus, and Magnolia acuminata in picnic area. South Carolina: In open woods and adjacent lawn under Q. texana (=nuttallii), with following nearby: Q. marilandica, Q. alba, Q. phellos, A. rubrum, Pinus echinata, Cornus florida, and (as scrub) C. ovata and Prunus sp.
from type study of Jenkins (1978a):
U. S. A.: NORTH CAROLINA— Henderson Co. - Skyland,
s.d. Miss Mary L. Wilson s.n. (lectotype, NYS).
material examined by Tulloss: U.S.A.:
ALABAMA—Unkn. Co. - ca. border Shelby & Jefferson Cos., unkn. loc., 22.viii.1984 C. Bas, D. T. Jenkins & R. E. Tulloss [Tulloss 8-22-84-H] (RET 237-9).
ILLINOIS—Unkn. Co. - Crab Orchard Nat. Wildlife Refuge [37.6935° N/ 89.0705° W, 130 m], 20.viii.2012 "local mushroomer" s.n. (RET 511-10, nrITS seq'd.).
NEW JERSEY—Mercer Co. - Princeton, Mt. Lucas Rd. [40.3767° N/ 74.6564° W, 91 m], 9.ix.1999 N. Macdonald & R. E. Tulloss [Tulloss] 9-9-99-K (RET 297-1, nrITS seq'd.). Middlesex Co. - Cheesequake St. Pk. [40°26'32" N/ 74°16'10" W, 0-13 m], 10.ix.1989 NJMA foray member s.n. [Tulloss 9-10-89-NJMA1] (RET 045-7). Sussex Co. - Wawayanda St. Pk., 27.viii.1997 Mary Wakino s.n. [Tulloss 8-27-97-MW] (RET 268-5). Warren Co. - Columbia, Beulahland Farview, off Old Mine Rd. [40.98910° N/ 75.12793° W, 136 m], 4.viii.2012 Cindy Molesky s.n. [Tulloss 8-4-12-D] (RET 504-5, nrITS seq'd.).nbsp;
NORTH CAROLINA—Buncombe Co. - Asheville, 27.v.1911 H. C. Beardslee s.n. [H. A. Kelly Herb. 353] (MICH).
PENNSYLVANIA—Allegheny Co. - McCandless Twp., North Park, 21.ix.2013 unkn. coll. s.n. [WPMC 20130921-60] (RET 568-2). Westmoreland Co. - ca. Vandergrift, Northmoreland Pk. [40°34'47" N/ 79°36'45" W, 325-360 m], 9.vii.1993 Emily Johnson s.n. (RET 094-6).
SOUTH CAROLINA—Oconee Co. - Seneca [34°46'09" N/ 82°57'55" W, 263 m], ix.1982 M. A. King 9-82-MAK3 (RET 224-9), -MAK5 (RET 224-7), 27.vi.1985 M.A. King & R. E. Tulloss 6-27-85-A (RET 055-1).
TENNESSEE—Blount Co. - GSMNP, Cades Cove, Loop Rd., 27.ix.2006 D. J. Lodge s.n. [Tulloss 9-27-06-D] (RET 396-9).
TEXAS—Newton Co. - Bleakwood, off St. Hwy. 87, ca. Lewis residence, 16.vii.1995 David P. Lewis 5524 (RET 286-1), 10.vii.1996 D. P. Lewis 5682 (RET ??), 5.ix.1996 D. P. Lewis 5699 (RET 285-4), 19.x.1997 D. P. Lewis 5827 (RET 286-2).
VIRGINIA—Lancaster Co. - Kilmarnock, Ran Chilton Mem. Pk. [37°43'0" N/ 76°22'59" W, 19-22 m], 1.ix.1985 D. C., E. H. & R. E. Tulloss 9-1-85-A (RET 205-5).
[Note: Also, include W. B. Cooke 41234 (2.viii.1969, Scioto Trails, St. For., Ross Co., OHIO) in MICH.]
It is extremely abnormal for clamps to be reported from tissues other than at the bases of basidia when no basidial clamps are reported. Recent material should be revised to check Jenkins' observation.
—R. E. Tulloss
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(Peck) E.-J. Gilbert
"Ringless False Fly Agaric"
1. Amanita parcivolvata, Oconee County, South Carolina, U.S.A.
2. Amanita parcivolvata
3. Amanita parcivolvata, by H. C. Beardslee ca. 1904.
4. Amanita parcivolvata, North Carolina?, U.S.A., by H. C. Beardslee ca. 1904.
RET (1-2) Oconee County, South Carolina, U.S.A.
Henry C. Beardslee (3-4) probably North Carolina, U.S.A.; ca. 1904, courtesy of Dr. C. Bas, Leiden.
Each spore data set is intended to comprise a set of measurements from a single specimen made by a single observer;
and explanations prepared for this site talk about specimen-observer pairs associated with each data set.
Combining more data into a single data set is non-optimal because it obscures observer differences
(which may be valuable for instructional purposes, for example) and may obscure instances in which
a single collection inadvertently contains a mixture of taxa.