1. Amanita pantherina, Wassenaar, Zuid Holland, the Netherlands.
2. Amanita pantherina, Velká, Prague, Central Bohemia, Czech Republic.
The following is based on a description by Neville and
Poumarat (2004) and data from RET.
The cap of Amanita pantherina is 37 - 110 mm wide, deep brown or brown-bistre to
brown to hazel-brown to pale ochraceous brown, hemispheric at first,
then convex to plano-convex, finally planar, viscid and shiny when
wet, quickly drying, with a short striate margin (10 - 15% of the radius), nonappendiculate, inflexed at first,
then decurved. The volva is present as densely distributed
warts, pure white to cream to sordid cream, minutely verruculose, floccose,
easily removable. The flesh is white, unchanging when cut or bruised, 6 - 8 mm thick above the stem,
thinning evenly toward margin, leaving only a membrane for last few millimeters.
The gills are free to remote, close to crowded, white becoming grayish slowly, 7 - 10 mm broad, without a decurrent
line on the top of the stem, with a floccose edge. The short gills are truncate.
The stem is 50 - 140 × 6 - 20 mm,
subcyclindric, somewhat narrowing upward, white, becoming slightly tannish in age,
finely floccose becoming smooth above the ring, and with
small appressed squamules or creamy floccose material or sometimes
rings of such material on the stem above the bulb below the ring. The bulb
is 22 - 30 mm wide, round as an onion to ovoid to subfusiform. The ring is
placed rather low on the stem (lower than most other European amanitas
from section Amanita), membranous, white, quickly collapsing on
the stem, usually nonstriate on the upper surface,
flaring upward. The volva is white, becoming gray with age,
easily broken, and forming at least one ring on the joint of the stem
and bulb which is sometimes described as like a rolled sock. The flesh is white,
unchanging when cut or bruised, stuffed then hollow.
The spores measure (7.5-) 8.5 - 11.7 (-14.0) × (4.9-) 6.2 - 8.1 (-9.8) µm and are
broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid, occasionally elongate, very rarely cylindric,
and inamyloid. Clamps are absent at bases of basidia. Spores measured by Neville
and Poumarat (2004) are as follows: (7.5-) 8 - 11.2 (-12)
× (5-) 5.5 - 8.5 µm and are broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid to elongate, infrequently globose.
This species was originally described from France and can be found under oaks (Quercus),
chestnuts (Castanea sativa), and conifers. Neville and Poumarat
site a reference reporting the present species with Helianthemum (H.
nummularium or H. grandiflorum) in subalpine habitat. The
original description is based on both French and German material. It is a species of
Europe and western Asia. Material described as A.
pantherina in the Americas seems to belong to a number of distinct taxa only some of which have been
described: A. multisquamosa Peck, A. pantherina var. pantherinoides
(Murrill) Dav. T. Jenkins, and A. velatipes G. F. Atk. are examples. There are also a
number of taxa in eastern and southern Asia to which the name A. pantherina has been mistakenly applied.
Among these mushrooms there are some which have been described formally or provisionally (such as
A. subglobosa Zhu L. Yang, A. parvipanthera Zhu L.
Yang, M. Weiss & Oberw., and A. pseudopantherina Zhu L.
Yang nom. prov.), while others are not yet treated in the literature.
I believe that there is at least one good icon of this mushroom in the collection at
the University of Montpellier herbarium. It may date from
the period when DeCandolle was on the faculty. [I would
appreciate receiving more information on the artwork.]
≡Amanita umbrina Pers. 1797. Tentam. Disp. Meth. Fung.: 67. [Superfluous name. Diverse combinations have been made as subspecific taxa in A. muscaria due to an original error of Fries—Agaricus muscarius var. umbrinus.]
=Agaricus muscarius var. umbrinus (Secr. ex Fr.) Fr. sensu Fr. 1838. Epicr.: 5. [Misapplication.] [In this and later publications, Fries cited two different numbers for Secretan’s number for Amanita umbrina. Both are incorrect. Saccardo corrected these errors (see below).]
≡Amanita muscaria var. umbrina (Secr. ex Fr.) Sacc. sensu Fr.1887. Syll. Fung. 5: 13. [Misapplication.]
≡Amanita muscaria f. umbrina (Secr. ex Fr.) E.-J. Gilbert sensu Fr. 1918. Gen. Amanita Pers.: 84. [Misapplication.]
≡Amanita muscaria f. umbrina (Secr. ex Fr.) Veselý sensu Fr. 1934b. Atl. Champ. Eur.: 31. [Misapplication.]
≡Amanita muscaria subsp. umbrina (Secr. ex Fr.) R. Schulz sensu R. Schulz. 1921. Pilz Krauterfreund 4(10): 229. [Misapplication.]
≡Amanita muscaria subsp. umbrina f. eu-umbrina R. Schulz nom. illeg. 1921. Pilz Kräuterfreund 4(10): 229. [Misapplication. Name of forma is avowed replacement for autonym. ICBN §11.6, §32.7] [The rank is not clearly specified, but in the key at the end of the article the taxa are called Formen of Amanita muscaria subsp. umbrina.]
≡Amanita regalis f. umbrina (Secr. ex Fr.) Neville & Poumarat sensu Fr. 2002 ["2001"]. Bull. Trimestriel Soc. Mycol. France 117(4): 324. [Misapplication.]
[Note: For additional synonymy see the Amanita Nomenclator (t.b.d.).]
The editors of this site owe a great debt to Dr. Cornelis Bas
whose famous cigar box files of Amanita nomenclatural information
gathered over three or more decades were made available to RET for computerization
and make up the lion's share of the nomenclatural information presented on this site.
J. Geml et al., Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden
Agaricus pantherinus DC : Fr.—Schaeff. 1762. Ibid.: pl. 90 (figs. 2 and 3) [Other figures in the same plate are explicitly excluded.]
Agaricus pantherinus DC : Fr.—Neville and Poumarat. 2004. Fungi Europaei 9: 399.
Olive text indicates a specimen that has not been
thoroughly examined (for example, for microscopic details) and marks other places in the text
where data is missing or uncertain.
The following material is based on original research by R. E. Tulloss except where noted otherwise.
NOTE: Spore measurements from papers by Z. L. Yang use his "Times New Roman" face for "Q" and "Q'"—respectively, "Q" and "Q."
(37–) 50–120 mm wide, pale creamy tan to deep brown, hemispheric at first, then convex, finally plano-convex, viscid, dull; context white, unchanging when cut or bruised, 6–7 mm thick at stipe, thinning evenly toward margin, membranous for last few mm; margin short striate (0.1–0.15R), nonappendiculate, inflexed at first, then decurved; universal veil as densely distributed warts, cream to sordid cream, not changing dramatically on exposure, minutely verruculose, floccose, detersile.
free to remote without decurrent line on stipe apex, close, whitish in mass, white in side view, 7–10 mm broad; lamellulae truncate.
50–150 × 10–30 mm, white, becoming slightly tannish in age, with surface shaggy (even above partial veil except for appressed pulverulence at apex), sometimes with surface cracking and forming recurved or curved scales; bulb up to 21± mm long, ovoid to subfusiform; context white, unchanging when cut or bruised, stuffed to hollow, with central cylinder 2± mm in diameter, concolorous or watery pale tan in larva tunnels; partial veil supra- to submedian, membranous, white, double-edged, flaring upward or pendent; universal veil as cothurnate ring near top of bulb, white or whitish, rather thick.
Odor indistinct. Taste not recorded.
Spot test for laccase (syringaldazine) - negative throughout in young, mature, and old basidiomes. Spot test for tyrosinase (paracresol) - in immature basidiome, positive under pileipellis, on edge of lamellae, in bulb and universal veil on bulb, on surface of stipe above bulb (negative elsewhere); in mature (but not old) basidiome, positive in pileus context below pileipellis and in disc, otherwise as in immature specimen; in old basidiome, positive throughout in 10 min. Test voucher: Tulloss 9-19-87-A.
75–115 µm thick, orange-brown, gelatinizing and paler at the surface; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 1.0–5.8 µm wide, branching, densely interwoven, subradially arranged; vascular hyphae not observed.
filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 1.5–7.5 µm wide, branching, plentiful, with slightly thickened walls, often in fascicles, sometimes with yellowish walls; acrophysalides plentiful to dominating, with walls slightly thickened or up to 0.8± µm thick, elongate to clavate to narrowly ellipsoid to subfusiform, sometimes slightly constricted, up to 104 × 40 µm or more; vascular hyphae not observed.
bilateral, with subhymenial base composed of ovoid to clavate to narrowly clavate to elongate intercalary inflated cells (up to 74 × 29 µm and often with slightly thickened walls) and partially inflated hyphal segments at very shallow angle to (or with longest dimension parallel to) central stratum and in one to two layers; wcs = 35–50 µm; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 1.5–10.0 µm wide, with segments of largest diameter narrowly subventricose to narrowly clavate and markedly narrowing at septa, with some of larger diameter having slightly thickened walls; terminal, inflated cells not observed; vascular hyphae 3.8–5.5 µm wide, scattered, only present in occasional sections.
wst-near = 10–25 µm;
wst-far = 25–50 µm; uninflated to
partially inflated to inflated short hyphal segments
mixed with occasional small inflated cells (e.g.,
clavate or irregular), often giving impression of
being pseudoparenchymatous, with elements immediately
below basidia predominantly with major diameter
(inflated cells) or length (hyphal segment)
perpendicular to central stratum.
33–55 × 6.0–11.8 µm, thin-walled, 4- and, occasionally, 2- or 1-sterigmate, with sterigmata up to 6.5 × 2.5 µm; clamps not observed.
On pileus: with all elements collapsing and becoming partially gelatinized; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 2.2–8.0 µm wide, frequently branching, without apparent dominant orientation, plentiful to locally dominant, sometimes in fascicles, with slightly thickened walls (up to 0.5 µm thick); inflated cells terminal, singly or in chains of up to 3 (some with vertical orientation, vast majority disordered), becoming dissociated, plentiful to locally dominant, colorless to very pale brownish gray in button specimens, with walls up to 1.0 µm thick, subglobose to broadly ellipsoid to ovoid (up to 62 × 46 µm), clavate to broadly fusiform to cylindric (up to 91 × 41 µm); vascular hyphae 2.0–16.0 µm wide, plentiful, branching, with knobby outline. On stipe base: elements without dominant orientation; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 1.8–10.2 µm wide, with slightly thickened walls (up to 0.5 µm thick), frequently branching, often densely interwoven, occasionally coiling, in fascicles or singly, plentiful, locally dominating, sometimes with yellowish walls; inflated cells hyaline, colorless, terminal, apparently not in chains, subcylindric to subfusiform-rostrate (up to 57 × 17.5 µm), ellipsoid (up to 79 × 49 µm), subglobose to globose (up to 56 × 56 µm), plentiful, locally dominating, with walls up to 1.0 µm thick; vascular hyphae not observed.
longitudinally acrophysalidic; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 1.5–10.5 µm wide, branching, occasionally with slightly thickened walls, occasionally with yellowish walls, occasionally with narrowly clavate to narrowly fusiform intercalary cells; acrophysalides dominating away from surface, up to 295 × 43 µm, with walls thin or up to 1.0 µm thick, rarely having uninflated hyphal side branch (arising without septum); vascular hyphae not observed.
filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 1.0–11.0 µm wide, frequently branching, plentiful and frequently dominating, often in fascicles, with fascicles and single hyphae interwoven or tangled and dominantly subradially oriented, with those of largest diameter often having walls up to 0.5 µm thick, occasionally with yellowish walls, with occasional narrowly fusiform intercalary segment; inflated cells terminal singly, plentiful to locally dominant, broadly clavate to narrowly clavate to narrowly fusiform, sometimes rostrate, sometimes with bud-like branch, up to 144 × 25 µm, with walls up to 0.8 µm thick, rarely with yellowish walls; vascular hyphae 3.5–12.5 µm wide, absent in some mounts, locally common.
composite data from all material revised by RET: [340/17/10] (7.5–) 8.5–11.7 (–14.0) × (4.9–) 6.2–8.1 (–9.8) µm, (L = (9.4–) 9.5–11.2 (–11.3) µm; L’ = 10.2 µm; W = (6.6–) 6.7–7.7 (–8.0) µm; W’ = 7.2 µm; Q = (1.20–) 1.27–1.60 (–2.04); Q = (1.32–) 1.34–1.51 (–1.61); Q’ = 1.42), hyaline, colorless, smooth, thin-walled, inamyloid, broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid, occasionally elongate, adaxially flattened; apiculus sublateral, cylindric to truncate conic; contents mono- or multiguttulate, often with additional finer granules; white in deposit (e.g., Breitenbach and Kränzlin 1995:150).
Subgregarious. Czech Republic: With Fagus sylvatica L. or under Carpinus, Corylus, and Pinus or with Picea abies (L.) Karst. or with Quercus. France: Under Quercus ilex L. Netherlands: Under F. sylvatica in moss on damp, dark, loamy sand during unusually wet summer or under F. sylvatica in dark alluvial soil. Switzerland: At 500–550 m elev., under Fagus, Abies, and Quercus or in F. sylvatica forest.
Yang (1997): NETHERLANDS:
ZUID HOLLAND—Wassenaar, 2.ix.1979 Dr.
Cornelis Bas 7474 (L).
RET: CZECH REPUBLIC:
CENTRAL BOHEMIAN REGION—Český Šternberk, 29.viii.2006 Dr. Jan
Borovička 15 (RET 405-6), 19 (RET 405-1);
Malovidy,15.vii.2006 J. Borovička 6 (RET 403-2),
7 (RET 403-6); Štěchovice, 10.vi.2006 J
Borovička 1 (RET 403-8, nrITS).
Chuchle, 16.vi.2009 J. Borovička BORE 36 (HKAS;
Provence, Mazot de Romanin, 26.x.1979 M. Moser
NOORD HOLLAND— Castricum,
Geversduin, 12.ix.1953 C. Bas s.n. (L 9952 18).
UTRECHT—Zeist, Driebergen, de Laan van
Beverweert, 23.ix.1989 C. Bas & R. E. Tulloss
[Tulloss 9-23-89-A] (RET 039-2, nrITS seq'd.).
ZUID HOLLAND—Leiden, Hortus Botanicus,
25.vii.1952 C. Bas 102 (L 951.152-254).
Voorschoten, Beethovenlaan, 18-20.ix.2000 C. Bas 9585
(L; RET 379-6);
Wassenaar, 19.ix.1987 C. Bas & R. E. Tulloss
[Tulloss 9-19-87-A] (RET 020-5).
Jeløy, Alby, 28.ix.1975 A.-E. Torkelsen
487/75 (O 53792).
1999 G. Adams 1 (RET 294-3,
nrITS seq'd.), 1a (RET 293-6,
nrITS & nrLSU seq'd.), 3
(RET 294-1, nrITS seq'd.).
OBWALDEN—Wilen, Forst [“quad 1965”],
9.viii.1976 J. Bächler 0908-76 BA
(NMLU). ZÜRICH—Zürich, 20.x.1991
Carmine Lavorato 911020-03 (in herb. C. Lavorato;
RET 036-6, nrLSU seq'd.).
Vyrnwy, ix.1962 E. Kits van Waveren s.n.
(L 986.303 678).
Amanita pantherina has been infrequently
reported in association with imported trees or soil
outside of Europe. Reid and Eicker
report the species from South Africa in Pinus
plantations and in association with Quercus
and Eucalyptus; and Pearson
said the species was common under introduced
Quercus in South Africa, but had grayer
pilei than is common in Europe. Garrido and
cite a report (now over sixty years old) from
Moser 79/693 is illustrated by Moser and Jülich
in a color photograph. Bächler 0908-76 BA is
illustrated in a color photograph by Breitenbach and
Borovička 1 is immature.
[A short note]
AMANITA PANTHERINA HAS
A MESSY nrITS
This is a brief summary of the variations noted in
A. pantherina material from South Africa, the
Netherlands, and the Czech Republic. The
following provides a list of positions in an
alignment of five nrITS sequences that appear to
represent a single species with plentiful single
nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)—character
positions with characters varying over a set of
two or more characters. This can be attributed
to failure of the ribosomal RNA repeat to homogenize
after a RNA hybridization event or events.
This situation has been explored in a number of
genera including Laetiporus and
I used the following collections from our
294-3 (South Africa)
403-8 (Czech Republic)
293-6 (South Africa)
294-1 (South Africa)
Material originally submitted as var. abietina
or var. albida, were not included in the mix
for the alignment.
The aligned sequences sometimes contained a 46
character fragment of the nrSSU (=18S) gene on the
5' (left hand) end and/or a variable length fragment
of the nrLSU (=28S) gene on the 3' (right hand)
end. No variation was detected in the nrSSU
fragments—the region is more conserved than the
remainder of nrITS. The longest nrLSU fragment
was 145 characters long. One possible
SNP was noted in the nrLSU region.
In this alignment, the ITS sequences occupied the
region from character 47 to character 643. We did
not record gaps in sequences (which might occur to a
variable length repeat (e.g., GAGAGA might sometimes
be GAGAGAGA or GAGA). We are only reporting
character positions in which a single position is
occupied by different nucleotides in different
sequences and/or is recorded as an ambiguity
(simultaneous read of two or more characters).
We begin with three observations:
ITS1 is the most variable region in this
experiment. This could very well be because of
variable quality in the reads. In some
sequences, we did not even get a complete
ITS1. So the data requires a "grain of
There is no variation within the 5.8S region and for
a few characters on either side of it. This
region does show some variation between species;
however, of the three components of nrITS, 5.8S is
certainly the most conserved. The 5.8S region
runs from character 258 to 418 in this particular
ITS2 shows less variability and the positioning of
apparent SNPs is cleaner/more precise. ITS2
terminates at character 643 of the alignment.
Many sequences had a clear nrLSU 5' motif beginning
at character 644. In the present case of
A. pantherina, the motif is "TTGACCTCAAATCA."
Nongap variations (apparent SNPs) occurred at these
positions: 69, 76, 77, 79, 82, 87, 92, 112-115, 117,
128, 131, 205, 230, 251 in ITS1; and 442, 479, 525,
530, 558, 586 in ITS2.
A possible SNP in nrLSU occurred at position
An image of three SNPs from the alignment is
below. The tool used
was MUSCLE as implemented in Geneious 8.1.9.
In the following image (right click to expand), in addition to three SNPs, we cab see
a variable length multi-A repeat and the 5' motif
marking the beginning of 5.8S (in this case,
Molecular work was performed by Drs. Linas Kudzma
and Joszef Geml.
—R. E. Tulloss
Information to support the viewer in reading the content of "technical" tabs
can be found here.
Amanita pantherina var. pantherina
(DC. : Fr.) Krombh.
1. Amanita pantherina, Wassenaar, Zuid Holland, the Netherlands.
2. Amanita pantherina, Velká, Prague, Central Bohemia, Czech Republic.
RET - (1) Wassenaar, Zuid Holland, the Netherlands.
Dr. Jan Borovička - (2) Velká, Prague, Central Bohemia, Czech Republic.
Each spore data set is intended to comprise a set of measurements from a single specimen made by a single observer;
and explanations prepared for this site talk about specimen-observer pairs associated with each data set.
Combining more data into a single data set is non-optimal because it obscures observer differences
(which may be valuable for instructional purposes, for example) and may obscure instances in which
a single collection inadvertently contains a mixture of taxa.