4. Amanita maryaliceae, note dark volval remnants of unknown origin/cause on immature specimens, Oneida Co., New York, U.S.A. (RET 598-1)
The cap is 50 - 90 mm wide, white to a metallic brown
and somewhat translucent at first, with time a pale
orangish tint may develop hemispheric to
bell-shaped to rather flattened or (occasionally)
slightly concave. To date, staining or bruising
has often not been seen. It may be slow to
develop. The surface is tacky at
first, shiny, with a suggestion of embedded
concolorous radial fibrils. The cap flesh is
white, with a watery line just above the gills,
and does not change when cut or bruised. The
cap's nonappendiculate margin is usually not striate,
although sometimes it may become faintly striate for
about one-tenth of the cap's radius or longer in
age. Volval remnants are absent from the cap
or may be present as irregular warts or a
submembranous patch of loosely connected warts; the
remnants are white to off-white, easily crumbling,
easily removed, and tend to become grayish with
The gills of this species are free to narrowly adnate with a decurrent tooth and (often) a decurrent line on the top of the stem. They are white in mass (sometimes faintly pink at first), white in side view, and do not change when cut or bruised. Occasionally to rather commonly adjacent gills may be connected by at some point. Also, the gills may fork, but with open end of the forked gill pointing toward the stem rather than toward the cap's margin.
The short gillls are truncate to rounded truncate to subtruncate to subattenuate to attenuate; they are sometimes adjacent to the stipe rather than to the pileus margin; and they are unevenly distributed, of diverse lengths, and plentiful.
The stem is 57 - 135 × 5 - 12 mm, white, and does not
change when cut or bruised; it is decorated with fine
fibers or flocculent material. The stem's bulb
measures 22 - 42 × 14.5 - 21 mm; it is somewhat
turnip-like to somewhat like a short carrot, with
white mycelium threads attached to it. The
stem's flesh is solid to firmly stuffed, white,
unchanging when cut or bruised or rarely turning pale
pinkish brown in the lower part of the stipe.
The stem's ring is at or near the top of the
stem. It is ample, skirt-like, striate above,
and often has a line of beige (eventually graying)
volval material on the ring's edge or on its
underside near edge. The ring eventually
collapses on the stem. The volval may not be
evident, or it may be present as an easily detached
patch or patches that can accidentally be left in
the soil during the collecting process. At
other times, the volva may be present in broken
collars or irregular rows. In mature material,
the volva is off-white to very pale grayish, and
often darkens with age.
The odor of A. maryaliceae is mild or pleasant when the flesh is cut, close to "floral," or sometimes strongly "floral." The taste has not been recorded.
The spores of this species measure (6.3-) 7.0 - 9.0 (-9.5) × (4.5-) 4.9 - 6.3 (-7.0) µm, are broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid (or, occasionally, elongate) and amyloid. The basidia lack clamps at their bases.
This species is only known from a limited number
of collections at present.
genitive of a Latinized name; hence, "of Mary Alice" or "Mary Alice's."
In honor of RET's partner and wife, Mary
[Alice] King Tulloss, who has assisted in preparing
his work for publication until she can say
"undifferentiated filamentous hyphae" and
"longitudinally acrophysalidic" in her sleep.
She has collected with him, annotated collections
with him, helped to edit the original Amanita
Studies website, reviewed DNA annotations and
metadata in Sequin files to be submitted to GenBank,
carried out filing and other
secretarial tasks for him, assisted at his lectures,
and (as a retired software developer and a teacher
of high school Mathematics) played a significant
role in developing lesson plans for
tutorials. She tolerated boxes of dried
specimens and the odor of mothballs until she
could stand it no more, and then proposed and
supported the conversion of the Tulloss garage to
a herbarium with temperature and humidity control
to house RET's mycological collections.
Due to delays in data processing at GenBank, some accession numbers may lead to unreleased (pending) pages.
These pages will eventually be made live, so try again later.
Olive text indicates a specimen that has not been
thoroughly examined (for example, for microscopic details) and marks other places in the text
where data is missing or uncertain.
The following text is based upon molecular data
from Stephen Russell's group (Purdue) and
and other original research by R. E. Tulloss.
65 - 70 mm wide, white to pale grayish white to pale
gray, campanulate with incurved margin at first
becoming planoconvex with
decurved margin, somewhat translucent
prior to full expansion, subviscid; context
very firm, off-white,
with pileipellis sometimes dark gray in cross-section,
sometimes with watery line immediately above
lamellulae, thinning evenly from stipe to margin;
margin nonstriate, nonappendiculate;
universal veil often absent.
free to receding, with decurrent line on stipe,
cream with pinkish tint in mass, white to pale
cream in side view (nearly concolorous with stipe
context), staining or bruising reaction not observed,
ca 5 mm broad, broadest at mid-point, narrowly
to rounded attenulate to subattenuate to attenuate,
of diverse lengths, plentiful, with shape and length
71 - 80 × 11 - 12 mm, white, subcylindric or
upward, with surface innately fibrous, sometimes
with faint pinkish
brown stains on lower stipe: context solid,
pale cream, bruising or staining not observed,
insect damage not observed; bulb elongate
or narrowly ellipsoid, with uneven surface,
26 - 35 × 15 - 17 mm; partial veil white, membranous
persistent, exact position not
recorded (apical, subapical or superior),
with underside bearing fine fibrils near
attachment to stipe and otherwise smooth; universal
veil white, submembranous-friable, detersile,
sometimes leaving faint margin around top of bulb
or patches in adjacent substrate or small fragments
on bulb surface.
Odor indistinctly fungoid. Taste
KOH - negative on pileipellis.
Paracresol (1%) - faint at first, slightly intensifying
over 15 min., center of pileus under pileipellis, bulb
and stipe base, isolated spots in stipe apex.
Sygingaldazine (0.1%) - negative throughout
Test vouchers: Tulloss 8-16-81-A, Tulloss 7-14-96-D..
bilateral, divergent; ...
pseudoparenchymatous (cellular); ??.
36± × 10.5± μm, 4-sterigmate,
with sterigmata up to 5.1 × 1.4 μm; clamps probably
[Note: Spores from the specimens with blackening
volva are not included here as they may have been
altered by environmental factors, such as a
"disease" of the fruiting body. They tended to
have greater width and, hence, lower Q values than
the spores reported above.—RET]
Solitary to scattered.
Tlaxcala, Mexico: At 2775 m elev.
In dark, moist, friable loam of
In mixed forest with Amanita jacksonii.
New York, U.S.A.:
In sandy soil of mixed woods with Acer,
Fagus, Quercus, Pinus, &
Pennsylvania U.S.A.: At 523 m
elev. In dark loam of woods including
TLAXCALA—Mpio. Tlaxco - El Rodeo,
Cerro El Peñon [19.7000° N/ 98.2211° W, 2775 m],
14.vii.1996 Dr. Arturo Estrada Torres s.n.
[Tulloss 7-14-96-D] (TLXM; RET 254-6, nrITS &
MASSACHUSETTS—Unkn. Co. - ca. border
Berkshire & Franklin Cos., W of Charlemont,
Mohawk Trail St. Pk., 16.viii.1981 M. A. King &
R. E. Tulloss 8-16-81-A (RET 323-3, nrITS &
nrLSU seq'd.); NEMF 1986,
16.viii.1986 foray participant [Tulloss 8-16-86-J]
(RET 138-9, nrITS & nrLSU seq'd.).
NEW YORK—Oneida Co. - unkn. loc., 3.x.2013 Eric
Smith s.n. [mushroomobserver #147255] (RET 598-1,
nrITS & nrLSU seq'd.).
PENNSYLVANIA—Lackawanna Co. - Lackawanna St. For.,
Thornhurst [41.2006° N/ 75.6025° W, ca. 525 m],
4.vii.2013 David Wasilewski s.n. [mushroomobserver
#138823] (RET 550-7, nrITS & nrLSU seq'd.).
Monroe Co. - Pocono Mtns. [41.1271° N/ 75.4907°
W, 514 m], 19.vii.2015 D. Wasilewski s.n.
[mushroomobserver #210821] (RET 709-6, nrITS &
The semi-translucent appearance of the young cap,
the floral odor of the basidiome, the absence of
yellow in the universal veil in all known
specimens, and the lack of bruising reaction
suggest that this taxon is distinct from
rubescens var. alba Coker and other
rubescent North American taxa.
The following figure provides a sporograph
comparison between the latter taxon and A.
The lack of bruising on the fruiting body
distinguishes the present species from other,
recently distinguished white rubescent taxa such as
and the white-capped variant of A.
The present taxon could be the poorly known
A. spissa var. alba Coker with the
following exceptions. Coker describes his
odorless and tasteless
having subcrowded lamellae
having a stipe that becomes brownish where
having spores 6.3 - 7.5 × 4.2 - 5.0 µm (but his
assistant's spore measurements are notoriously
In an additional collection in NCU annotated in
Coker’s hand ("North Carolina,
??, deciduous woods SE
of the Graded School, 12.vii.1920 H. R. Totten
4386," as “Amanita spissa var. alba”)
Coker wrote: “This is exactly like Hartsville no.
11—Cap 7 cm broad, smooth, white with a few light
brown stains. No volva patches. Margin faintly
striate, surface pitted. Veil ?? + staining
exactly as in my 11, even to the faint pinkish
flocculence from the volva on the good sized basal
bulb. This var. is apparently near but certainly
not the same as ?? of no. 4377 which differs in
staining much more freely + quickly (gills in var.
alba hardly stain at all; caps stain slowly and
very little), distinct warts + shorter stem +
smaller size. Stem including bulb 13 cm long.
Spores white, elliptic, smooth, 4.4 - 6.5 ×
6.3 - 9.2 µm [est. L = 7.8 µm; est.
W = 5.4 µm; est. Q = 1.42].”
The following species have been mistaken for
A. maryaliceae in the field:
pearlriverensis. Amanita media
is distinguished by, among other things, its
narrow spores. The latter two
been segregated from A. maryaliceae by
The two genes used for this
purpose are the commonly databased nrITS and
nrLSU. We have given some attention to whether
sequences of the two genes can both be frequently
obtained from a single sample and, when they are
obtained in large part, they can be easily connected
without insertion of ambiguities—"N's."
To date we can regularly obtain sufficient overlap
to allow joining of Sanger process sequences by
employing reads including the primers ITS4B and LR0R
(or LSU0F) in the case(s) of A. ostendemihi
and A. pearlriverensis. These two are
easily differentiated from each other by indels
(apparent gaps or insertions) in the ITS1 region of
the nrITS sequences.
more to come
Apparently there is a "darkening volva syndrome"
that attacks members of the rubescent group in
section Validae. Since the universal
veil on the stipe bulb of RET 550-7 is pallid and
the pileus has opened and separated from the
partial veil, we have an example of undarkened
universal veil in mature or near mature
material in a specimen with pigmented cap. That
the fact that the volval warts on
immature caps of RET 598-1 are dark suggests that
an alien agent may be the cause of the
pigmentation. Historically, dark-volvas on
amanitas have occasionally been attributable to
invasion of the volval tissue by a dark-walled
hyphomycete—as has been reported for Amanita
The blackened volva of RET 598-1 was examined at
1250× in dilute KOH without stain. While a
dark-walled hyphomycete was seen, it was seen only
in a single fragment in the section examined.
It had walls about 0.5 μm thick and frequent,
perforated septa about 0.8 μm thick. The
source of the dark appearance seems to be much more
likely to be necropigment in the collapsed,
gelatinized, and partially decayed cells of the
upper surface of the volval warts. These
cells (both filamentous hyphae and inflated cells)
contain pigment (saturated orange-brown) that is
significantly darker than the rest of the tissue
which is dominated by colorless to very pale brown,
transparent inflated cells.
In comparison to the warts of RET 550-7, the
darkened warts are much thinner and seem to have
lost material to decay; the latter's dark upper
surface is irregular and not smooth as in the
undarkened warts. Further indication that the
original surface has been lost in the darkened
warts is provided by the absence of soil particles
or other detritus on their surfaces.
Each spore data set is intended to comprise a set of measurements from a single specimen made by a single observer;
and explanations prepared for this site talk about specimen-observer pairs associated with each data set.
Combining more data into a single data set is non-optimal because it obscures observer differences
(which may be valuable for instructional purposes, for example) and may obscure instances in which
a single collection inadvertently contains a mixture of taxa.