Olive text indicates a specimen that has not been thoroughly examined (for example, for microscopic details) and marks other places in the text where data is missing or uncertain.
The following morphological information is based on original research of R. E. Tulloss. Sequence data and phylogenetic analyses are due to (Hughes et al., to appear) and to continued original research in the laboratory of Dr. K. W. Hughes.
29 - 95 mm wide, pale citrine-yellow to pale primrose-yellow to white, sometimes as shade of yellow fading to white at margin, often more yellow in age, sometimes staining brownish, staining lavender to amethyst particularly on exposure to near freezing or barely freezing temperatures, subcampanulate at first, then convex, planar in age, matte, waxy; context white, sometimes with watersoaked line above lamellae, staining/bruising not observed, 2 - 5 mm thick over stipe, narrowing evenly to margin; margin usually nonstriate, sometimes short-striate in age, nonappendiculate, sometimes become dentate in age; universal veil absent or as small patches and crumbs, white, becoming pale orange-tan or pale reddish brown with exposure, smooth, easily removed (at least at first), submembranous or felted.
free to very narrowly adnate with faint decurrent tooth on stipe apex (may require 10× lens), close to crowded, pale yellowish white or yellowish cream in mass, white in side view, staining/bruising not observed, 3 - 6 mm broad, broadest at about 3/4 radius from stipe; lamellulae rounded attenuate, unevenly distributed, of diverse lengths, plentiful.
70± - 85 × 4 - 7 (-19) mm, white, sometimes staining brown, subcylindric or narrowing upward, slightly flaring at apex, longitudinally striatulate, sometimes with slightly raised longitudinal fibrils, sometimes shiny-silky; bulb 9 - 27 × 10.5 - 40 mm, globose to subglobose, soft and easily compressed, sometimes splitting longitudinally, sometimes vertically compressed, often without distinct margin; context stuffed or solid or sometimes predominantly solid with lacunae in central cylinder, white to off-white, firm, sometimes with rusty-brown staining, with central cylinder sometimes becoming watersoaked; partial veil pale primrose yellow to citrin-yellow to (infrequently) white, superior to subsuperior, thin, membranous, skirt-like, persistent, at times becoming gray on thickened margin; universal veil as loose short thin irregular limb, white, often collapsing on stipe base, sometimes with brownish ochraceous staining.
Odor strongly of potatoes in flesh of bulb. Taste not recorded.
Spot test for tyrosinase (L-tyrosine) - negative on surfaces of lamellae, faintly positive (slightly browner than in other species and not becoming black with time) in spots on stipe surface, spots in central cylinder of stipe, and on center of pileus. Test vouchers: Tulloss 11-28-85-B, 11-30-85-D. [Note: these collections comprised very pale-capped specimens.—RET]
bilateral, divergent; ??
pseudoparenchymatous (cellular), ??.
[6/1/1] 40 - 44 × 9.0 - 12.5 μm, dominantly 4-, occasionally 2-sterigmate, with sterigmata up to 3.5 × 1.5 μm; clamps not observed.
composite data including all collections defined
molecularly as Amanita cornelihybrida,
RET: [209/10/9] (6.7-) 7.5 - 9.5 (-11.0) × (6.0-)
6.8 - 9.0 (-10.0) μm, (L = 7.9 - 8.9 μm;
L' = 8.4 μm; W = 7.2 - 8.4 μm;
W' = 7.8 μm; Q = (1.01-) 1.03 - 1.14 (-1.25);
Q = 1.06 - 1.09; Q' = 1.08), hyaline,
colorless, thin-walled, smooth, amyloid, globose to
subglobose, infrequently broadly ellipsoid, often at
least somewhat flattened adaxially; apiculus
sublateral, cylindric, often proportionately large;
contents predominantly mono- to
multiguttulate, occasionally granular, with
guttules distinctly yellowish in dilute KOH
solution; white in deposit.
Ontario, Canada: At 223 m elev.
Hidalgo, Mexico: At 2140 m elev. In mesophytic
Quercus-Pinus patula forest.
Massachusetts, U.S.A.: In clusters. At ca.
12 m elev. In sandy soil of
Pinus-Quercus barrens. With
caps deep amethyst in rain at 1°C.
New Jersey: Scattered to gregarious. At
3 - 35 m elev. In deep sandy soil of
Pinus-Quercus barrens or in sandy
soil in and near plantation of European grown
Pinus strobus. With some caps becoming
lavender overnight (after collection) in near
New York: At 145 - 250 m elev. On
Cambro-Ordovician Wappinger limestone with
Picea abies and/or Pinus or in mixed
forest at base of Pinus with nearby
Acer, Fagus grandifolia, Ostrya
virginiana, and Quercus.
South Carolina: In Quercus-Pinus
Tennessee: Common, but scattered. At 913 m
elev. In dark moist loam under litter in wet
depression in forest including Pinus and
Co. - Walsh [42.7616° N/ 80.3940° W, 223 m],
28.ix.2013 Eva Skific s.n. [mushroomobserver.org
(RET 575-1; nrLSU seq'd.).
northern jct. of Méx. Rte. 105 deviat. for
Zacualtipan & main Rte 105 [20.6744° N/
98.6747° W, 2140 m], 18.vii.1996 A. Estrada
Torres, L. Varela Fregoso, A. Montoya Esquivel & R. E.
Tulloss 7-18-96-E (RET 252-7, nrLSU seq'd.;
FLORIDA—Putnam Co. - Welaka, Welaka St.
For., Mud Springs Nature Trail [29°28’ N/ 81°39’ W,
17 m], 9.xii.1996 S. Sheine s.n. (RET 257-3,
nrITS seq'd.), 11.xii.1996 Sandy Sheine s.n.
(RET 257-6, nrITS seq'd.), 13.xii.1996 Sandy Sheine
s.n. (RET 257-5, nrITS clones seq'd.).
MAINE—Knox Co. - Rockland, Rockland Bog,
1 Bog Rd. [44°07’14” N/ 69°09’18” W, 75 m],
11.ix.2013 Wm. Bakaitis 2013 #1 (RET 587-7, nrLSU
Waldo Co. - Lincolnville,
NE corner of Ducktrap and Tanglewood Rds., Farm and
Home Extension plot , 15.ix.2013 William Bakaitis
VWB 2013 #4 (RET 587-4, nrITS seq'd.), W. Bakaitis
VWB 2013 #3 (RET 587-8, nrITS seq'd.).
Washington Co. - Steuben, Eagle Hill Inst., Red Tr.
[44.46° N 67.93° W, 60 m], 29.viii.2014 C.
Rodríguez Caycedo & R. E.
Tulloss [Tulloss 8-29-14-A] (RET 636-7, nrLSU
MASSACHUSETTS—Barnstable Co. (Cape
Cod) - ca. Eastham [12 m], 15.x.2009 NEMF 2009
participant s.n. [Tulloss 10-15-09-E] (RET 448-4,
nrITS seq'd.); Falmouth, Beebe Woods [41.5612° N/
70.6363° W, 36 m], 7.x.2012 Nathan Wilson s.n.
(RET 558-8, nrITS seq'd.).
MISSOURI—St. Francois Co. - Farmington,
Hickory Canyon Natural Area [37.878° N/ 90.3096° W,
270m], 10.xi.2013 Patrick Harvey s.n.
(RET 596-1, nrLSU seq'd.). Ste. Genevieve
Co. - Hawn St. Pk. [37.820° N/ 90.2429° W, 242 m],
14.x.2012 P. Harvey s.n. [mushroomobserver.org
(RET 554-2, nrITS seq'd.), 13.v.2014 P. Harvey s.n.
(RET 596-2, nrLSU seq'd.).
NEW JERSEY—Burlington Co. -
Brendan T. Byrne [=Lebanon] St.
For., Pakim Pond [39°52’49” N/ 74°32’02” W, 35 m],
29.x.2006 R. E. Tulloss & NJMA foray
participants s.n. [Tulloss 10-29-06-A] (RET 419-5,
nrITS seq'd.); W of Chatsworth, Franklin Parker
Preserve, 12.x.2009 John Burghardt, Felipe
Wartchow & R. E. Tulloss [Tulloss 10-12-09-E]
(RET 450-1, nrITS seq'd.); W of Chatsworth,
Franklin Parker Preserve, by north ("airport")
gate [39°48.827’ N/ 74°32.857’ W, 29 m],
14.x.2012 Nina Burghardt, R. E. Tulloss, C.
Rodríguez Caycedo, Naomi Goldman, et al. [Tulloss
10-14-12-E] (RET 519-6, nrITS seq'd.).
Cape May Co. - Belleplain St. For., Jakes
Landing Rd. [39.1892° N/ 74.8531°, 3 m],
21.x.2006 R. E. Tulloss 10-21-06-B (RET 397-7,
nrITS seq'd.), 10-21-06-D (RET 397-10, nrITS
Middlesex Co. - Jamesburg Twp., Jamesburg Twp. Pk.,
ca. Helmetta [40°23’07” N/ 74°25’48” W, 18 m],
17.x.2006 R. E. Tulloss 10-17-06-A (RET 396-7,
NEW YORK—Dutchess Co. - Pawling, NE
shore of Green Mtn. Lk. [41°34’51” N/ 73°36’19” W,
148 m], 14.x.2012 William Bakaitis #2 (RET 520-8,
nrITS seq'd.), #3 (RET 520-4, nrITS seq'd.), #4
(RET 520-9, nrITS seq'd.).
Tompkins Co. - Newfield, Connecticut Hill, Red Dot
Tr., ca. 30 yds. S of Ridge Rd.,
22.ix.2013 I. V. Hull s.n. (RET 572-6).
Ulster Co. - Warwarsing, Minnewaska St. Pk. [ca.
41°44’53” N/ 74°19’40” W, 175-250 m], 24.ix.2010
NEMF 2010 participant s.n. [Tulloss 9-24-10-A]
(RET 484-8, nrITS seq'd.).
NORTH CAROLINA—McDowell Co. - Blue Ridge
Pkwy., Buck Creek Gap, Mountains to Sea Tr.,
29.ix.2017 Laurie Jaegers s.n. [Tulloss 9-29-17-B]
(RET 796-10, nrLSU seq'd.).
Yancey Co. - Burnsville, Pisgah Nat. For., Black
Mountain Campgrd. [35.7516º N/ 82.2209º W, 914 m],
29.ix.2017 Tim Geho 9-29-17-B (RET 797-1, nrLSU
OHIO—Hocking Co. - Hocking Hills St.
For., 10.iv.2013 Walter Sturgeon s.n. (RET 578-8).
PENNSYLVANIA—Allegheny Co., ca. border of
McCandless and Hampton Twps., North Park, oppos. Best
Feeds, tr. of Wildwood Rd. [40.5946° N/
79.9906° W, 286 m], 21.ix.2013 Gary Lincoff, Jim
Adams et al. s.n. (RET 567-4, nrLSU seq'd.).
Lackawanna Co. - Lackawanna
St. For., ca. Thornhurst [41.2006° N, 75.6025° W,
523m], 21.x.2011 David Wasilewski s.n. (RET 499-4,
nrITS clones & nrLSU seq'd.).
SOUTH CAROLINA—Anderson Co. - Hartwell
Lake, Singing Pines Recreation Area [34°29'16" N/
83°01'54" W, 208 m], 27.xii.1982 R. E. Tulloss
12-27-82-H (RET 399-3, nrITS seq'd.).
Oconee Co. - Seneca [34°46'09" N/ 82°57'55" W, 263
m], 25.xii.1982 R. E. Tulloss 12-25-82-D (RET
400-2, nrITS seq'd.), 11-28-85-B (RET 132-7, nrITS
seq'd.), 11-30-85-D (RET 132-10, nrITS
TENNESSEE—Blount Co. - GSMNP, Cades
Cove, picnic area [35°35'19" N/ 083°46'13" W,
913 m], 27.ix.2006 R. E. Tulloss 9-27-06-H (RET
396-3, nrITS clones seq'd.).
WISCONSIN—Dane Co. - Walking Iron Co. Pk.
[43.182° N/ 89.8141° W, 243 m], 12.x.2015 Andrew Khitsun
(RET 720-3, nrLSU seq'd.).
Juneau Co. - Kingston Pines St. Nat. Area
[44.2016º N/ 90.3006º W, 302 m], 30.viii.2017
A. Khitsun s.n. [mushroomobserver
(RET 804-8, ITS2-nrLSU seq'd.).
This species was separated from its look-alikes
by molecular means.
The easiest of the look-alikes to distinguish
by microscopy is
lavendula. Its spores are
characteristically broadly ellipsoid on
The following sporograph compares spore size and
for lavendula with those characters of the
present species and of the third taxon
Those working on this species acknowledge the support
of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, and
National Science Foundation grant DEB 1144974.—K. W.
Hughes and R. E. Tulloss
Information to support the viewer in reading the content of "technical" tabs
can be found here.
K. W. Hughes, Tulloss & Rodríguez Caycedo
1. Amanita sp-lavendula01, Pakim Pond, Brendan T. Byrne St. For., Burlington Co., New Jersey, USA. RET 419-5
2. Amanita sp-lavendula01, Hartwell Lk., Anderson Co., South Carolina, near border with Georgia, USA. RET 399-3
3. Amanita sp-lavendula01, Hartwell Lk., Anderson Co., South Carolina, near border with Georgia, USA. RET 399-3
4. Amanita sp-lavendula01 with magenta set to max in Photoshop (compare to image 2), Hartwell Lk., Anderson Co., South Carolina, near border with Georgia, USA. RET 399-3
5. Amanita sp-lavendula01, Lackawanna Co., Pennsylvania, USA. RET 499-4
6. Amanita sp-lavendula01, Hawn St. Pk., Ste. Genevieve Co., Missouri, USA. RET 554-2
7. Amanita sp-lavendula01, Hawn St. Pk., Ste. Genevieve Co., Missouri, USA. RET 554-2
8. Amanita sp-lavendula01, Falmouth, Barnstable Co., Massachusetts, USA. RET 558-8
9. Amanita sp-lavendula01, Walsh, Ontario, Canada. RET 575-1
RET - (1) with in situ drying, Pakim Pond, Brendan T. Byrne State Forest, Burlington County, New Jersey, U.S.A. (RET 419-5).
(2-4) Lake Hartwell, Anderson County, South Carolina, U.S.A. (RET 399-3).
David Wasilewski - (5) ca. Thornhurst, Lackawanna State Forest, Lackawanna County, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. (RET 499-4).
Patrick Harvey - (6-7) Hawn State Park, Ste. Genevieve County, Missouri, U.S.A. (RET 554-2).
Each spore data set is intended to comprise a set of measurements from a single specimen made by a single observer;
and explanations prepared for this site talk about specimen-observer pairs associated with each data set.
Combining more data into a single data set is non-optimal because it obscures observer differences
(which may be valuable for instructional purposes, for example) and may obscure instances in which
a single collection inadvertently contains a mixture of taxa.