3. Amanita banningiana, Hopewell Twp., Mercer Co., New Jersey, U.S.A.
4. Amanita banningiana, Hopewell Twp., Mercer Co., New Jersey, U.S.A.
The cap of Amanita banningiana is 40 - 115 mm wide, orange with a rather narrow yellow margin to yellow-orange to yellow-bronze, with an umbo often becoming darker to rich yellow brown to more reddish brown with age , brown tint sometimes spreading from the umbo toward the margin while maturing, virgate, ovate to rounded conic at first, then broadly campanulate or rounded-campanulate to hemispheric to plano-convex, finally with upward flaring margin, umbonate, lubricious to tacky, dull to subshiny to shiny according to stages of drying, with a strongly striate margin (25 - 40% of the radius), nonappendiculate. The volva is absent or rarely present as a patch, white, thin, membranous, and detersile. The flesh is off-white to very pale yellow to pale yellow, sometimes paler than stem flesh, yellow to yellow orange under the cap skin, sometimes brownish under cap skin in the center, unchanging when cut or bruised, 3 - 12 mm thick above the stem, thinning evenly for one half to four-fifths to nearly all of radius, then a membrane to margin.
The gills are free to narrowly adnate,
close to subcrowded to crowded, pale yellow to yellow in mass, yellowish
white to light yellow in side view, sometimes somewhat deeper yellow near
contact with cap flesh or near edge, unchanging when cut or bruised, 3 -
9.5 mm broad, with the broadest point two thirds of radius from the stem
to the margin, sometimes forking and anastomosing, without decurrent line
on top of stem or with a short line or decurrent tooth. The short gills
are truncate to subtruncate to rounded truncate to subattenuate.
The stem is 80 - 223 × 6 - 15 mm, with yellow to pale yellow fibrils on cream to pale yellow ground color, paler above the ring, sometimes nearly white toward base, sometimes darkening from handling, narrowing upward or nearly cylindric, sometimes flaring at the top of the stem at maturity, at times sinuate, finely pruinose at the top, at times satiny in remainder of upper half, longitudinally striatulate in (at least) the lower quarter. The ring is placed in the upper portion of the stem, white to cream to yellow, with upper surface paler than stem surface, with underside often more deeply pigmented, membranous, skirt-like, ample, persistent, striate on upper surface, with edge sometimes thickened, sometimes with white, wispy, submembranous pieces of limbus internus appendiculate from edge. The saccate volva is rather thick (e.g., 1 - 3 mm thick at mid-height of limb), soft and cottony on exterior, white, membranous, rather tough, egg-shaped at first, becoming somewhat thimble-shaped or larger or remaining more ovoid, opening irregularly, 17 - 54 × 9 - 22 mm, often with (occasionally robust - to 2.5 mm thick) limbus internus at point of attachment of volva to stem or up to one-third of distance up the limb from that point. The flesh is paler than to concolorous with surface (often exactly as in the cap flesh), unchanging when cut or bruised, stuffed at first with creamy cottony material, then hollow with occasionally stuffed base.
The odor is reported to be indistinct to faintly pleasant in young fruiting bodies, but may be unpleasant in older ones.
The spores measure (7.5-) 8.4 - 11.9 (-15.0) × (5.2-) 5.9 - 7.8 (-9.8) µm and are ellipsoid and inamyloid.
This species is awaiting formal publication. Its range extends from Maine to Alabama and west to Wisconsin. It seems most common north of the Carolinas. It is solitary to subgregarious and is associated with oak-beech-hickory forests (Quercus spp., Fagus grandifolia, Carya spp. including C. ovata) (New Jersey); in oak-beech-Canadian hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) forests (Connecticut); in mixed forests including maple (Acer), dogwood (Cornus florida), oaks (including Q. alba), and Rhododendron (South Carolina); and in low-lying mixed forests including Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), Yellow Poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), pines (Pinus echinata and P. taeda), oaks (Q. stellata, etc.), and Sassafras (S. albidum) (Virginia).
Amanita banningiana is assignable to Amanita stirps Hemibapha. Macroscopically, its is distinguished by a predominantly brilliant yellow cap that develops an orange-brown tint in the center which often eventually spreads nearly over the entire cap and a stem having a pale yellow ring and yellow, felted fragments of an internal limb spread over a pale yellow ground. Like many species of stirps Hemibapha, the stem is connected to the volva only at the very base. This fruiting bodies of this species are usually smaller than those of A. jacksonii Pomerl. and A. arkansana H. R. Rosen. The present species largely overlaps the northern part of the range of A. jacksonii and the more southerly range of A. arkansana. The reader may also wish to compare the present species to A. javanica (Corner & Bas ) T. Oda, C. Tanaka & Tsuda.—R. E. Tulloss and L. Possiel
Olive text indicates a specimen that has not been
thoroughly examined (for example, for microscopic details) and marks other places in the text
where data is missing or uncertain.
The following is based on original research of R. E. Tulloss.
40 - 115 mm wide, orange (more orange than 4A8 at mid-radius) with rather narrow yellow (e.g., 4A6) margin to yellow-orange to yellow-bronze (from 3A5 to 3A8 to more bronze than 4A-B8), umbo often becoming darker (5A-B7-8 to 6E8 or darker) to rich yellow brown (a little more brown than 7.5YR 5/8) to more reddish brown with age (close to 7E8 or 8E7-8), brown tint sometimes spreading from umbo toward margin while maturing, virgate (sometimes requiring lens), ovate to rounded conic at first, then broadly campanulate or rounded-campanulate to hemispheric to plano-convex, finally with upward flaring margin, umbonate, lubricious to tacky, dull to subshiny to shiny according to stages of drying; context off-white to very pale yellow (e.g. paler than 1A2) to pale yellow (1A8 to 3A3), sometimes paler than stipe context, yellow to yellow orange under pileipellis, sometimes brownish under pileipellis in disc, unchanging when cut or bruised, 3 - 12 mm thick at stipe, thinning evenly for one half to four-fifths to nearly all of radius, then a membrane to margin; margin strongly striate (0.25 - 0.4R), nonappendiculate; universal veil absent or (rarely) as a patch and then white, thin, membranous, detersile.
free to narrowly adnate, without decurrent line on stipe apex or with a short line or decurrent tooth (lens), close to subcrowded to crowded, pale yellow to yellow (e.g., 3A3-4) in mass, yellowish white (1A2) to light yellow (2A3-4 to 3A4) in side view, sometimes somewhat deeper yellow near contact with pileus context or near edge, unchanging when cut or bruised, 3 - 9.5 mm broad, broadest point two thirds of radius from stipe to margin, sometimes forking and anastomosing; lamellulae truncate to subtruncate to rounded truncate to subattenuate.
80 - 223 × 6 - 15 mm, with yellow (2A4-5) to pale yellow fibrils on cream to pale yellow (2-3A2-3) ground color, paler above partial veil (1-2A3), sometimes nearly white toward base, sometimes darkening from handling, narrowing upward or nearly cylindric, sometimes flaring at apex at maturity, with base (inserted in volva) not so attenuated as in A. jacksonii, at times sinuate, finely pruinose at apex, at times satiny in remainder of upper half, longitudinally striatulate in (at least) lower quarter; context paler than, to concolorous with, surface (often exactly as in pileus context), unchanging when cut or bruised, watery or concolorous in larva tunnels, stuffed at first with creamy cottony material, then hollow with occasionally stuffed base, with some white cottony fibrils (sometimes gelatinizing) always present in 2 - 8 mm wide central cylinder; partial veil superior, white to cream to yellow, with upper surface paler than stipe surface (2A2 or paler), with underside often more deeply pigmented (e.g., 2A5 or deeper yellow), membranous, skirt-like, ample, persistent, striate on upper surface, with edge sometimes thickened, sometimes with white, wispy, submembranous pieces of limbus internus appendiculate from edge; universal veil as saccate volva, rather thick (e.g., 1 - 3 mm thick at mid-height of limb), soft and cottony on exterior, white, membranous, rather tough, egg-shaped at first, becoming somewhat thimble-shaped or larger or remaining more ovoid, opening irregularly, attached over more of stipe base than in A. jacksonii, 17 - 54 × 9± - 22 mm, often with (occasionally robust—to 2.5 mm thick) limbus internus at point of attachment of volva to stipe or up to one-third of distance up limb from that point.
Odor indistinct to faintly pleasant (young basidiome) to strongly fungoid or very slightly like A. bisporigera (S. Hopkins, pers. commun.) in older material. Taste indistinct.
Spot test for laccase (syringaldazine) - negative. 95% ethanol - strongly intensifying yellow of lamellae in seconds. Spot test for tyrosinase (paracresol) - positive throughout basidiome except for scattered spots (e.g., in central stipe context, in pileus context, in interior of universal veil) and on undamaged surfaces of lamellae. Test voucher: ??.
bilateral, divergent; wcs = 30 - 55 µm; subhymenial base comprised of narrow elements (cylindric to fusiform to narrowly clavate, intercalary, thin-walled, up to 62 × 14.5 µm) diverging at rather shallow angle, approaching ? degrees to central stratum at contact with subhymenium, also containing frequently branching, filamentous, uninflated hyphae; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae ? µm wide, ?; divergent, terminal inflated cells ?; vascular hyphae ? µm wide, ?.
wst-near = 30 - 45 µm; wst-far = 45 - 55 µm; pseudoparenchymatous (cellular), with cells in two to three layers and rather small (up to 12.5 × 11.0 µm), with basidia arising from small inflated cells and branched elements, 10 - 20 µm from subhymenial base to nearest base of basidium/-ole, 25 - 40 µm from subhymenial base to most distant base of basidium/-ole.
39 - 55 × 10.8 - 12.8 µm, 4-sterigmate, with sterigmata up to 6.5 × 1.2 µm; clamps present.
[239/12/10] (7.5-) 8.4 - 12.0 (-15.0) × (5.0-) 5.7 - 7.8 (-9.8) µm, (L = 8.9 - 10.4 (-11.5) µm; L’ = 9.8 µm; W = 6.1 - 7.0 (-7.3) µm; W’ = 6.6 µm; Q = (1.14-) 1.32 - 1.69 (-2.14); Q = 1.39 - 1.59 (-1.69); Q’ = 1.49) hyaline, colorless, thin-walled, smooth, inamyloid, ellipsoid, occasionally cylindric or elongate or broadly ellipsoid, rarely subglobose, usually at least somewhat adaxially flattened; apiculus sublateral, cylindric to truncate-conic, prominent; contents monoguttulate; white in deposit.
Solitary to subgregarious. Connecticut: in mixed forest including F. grandifolia, Quercus, and Tsuga canadensis. Maryland: in broad-leafed forest near Quercus prinus. Massachusetts: in leaf mold and loam of mixed forest. Missouri: In Quercus-Pinus forest. New Jersey: in very diverse broad-leafed forest including Quercus or in broad-leafed forest dominated by Fagus grandifolia, Quercus spp., and Carya spp. or in broad-leafed forest including F. grandifolia and Quercus. New York: in loam of boggy area, woody plants not specified. Virginia: in low-lying, mixed forest (Liquidambar styraciflua, Liriodendron tulipifera, Pinus echinata, P. taeda, Q. falcata(?), Q. stellata, and Sassafras albidum) on sandy loam. South Carolina: in loam of stream bank in broad-leafed forest including Acer sp., Cornus florida, Q. alba, and Rhododendron sp.
ALABAMA—Unkn. Co. - border of Jefferson
& Shelby Cos., 22.viii.1984 Dr. Cornelis Bas, Dr.
David T. Jenkins & R. E. Tulloss 8-22-84-F
(RET 236-8, nrITS & nrLSU seq'd.).
CONNECTICUT—Middlesex Co. - East Haddam,
Devil’s Hopyard St. Pk. [41°28'32" N/ 72°20'25" W,
72 m], 7.ix.1992 Dr. Eugene Varney, Susan Hopkins &
Michael Pack s.n. (RET 083-8);
Middleton Twp., Connecticut For.
& Parks Assoc., 25.vii.1992 A. E. Bessette s.n.
[Tulloss 7-25-92-B] (RET 065-5. nrITS & nrLSU seq'd.),
participant s.n. [Tulloss 7-25-92-A] (RET 065-7).
New London Co. - Colchester Twp., Day Pond St. Pk.
[41°33'25" N/ 72°25'06" W, 134 m], 28.viii.2009 M.
Pack s.n. (RET 437-9), 4.ix.2011 P. Russell s.n.
[Tulloss 9-4-11-C] (RET 489-10).
INDIANA—Monroe Co. - SE of Bloomington,
Paynetown St. Rec. Area, Lk. Monroe, [39.0941° N/
86.4476° W, 174 m], 23.viii.2014 Patrick Harvey s.n.
(RET 638-1). Montgomery Co. -
Waveland, Shades St. Pk. [39.9378° N/ 87.0894° W, 223
m], 28.viii.2012 Stephen Russell 3621
(RET 532-3), 3623 [mushroomobserver.org #107662]
MARYLAND—Baltimore Co. - unkn. loc.,
23.vii.1990 Paul E. Noell s.n. [Tulloss 7-23-90-PEN1] (RET 148-10). Unk. Co. - unkn. loc., s.d. P. E. Noell s.n. (RET 148-4).
MASSACHUSETTS—Berkshire Co. - Hopkins
Mem. For., 15.viii.1986 George Waitkins s.n.
[Tulloss 8-15-86-I] (RET ??), NEMF86
participant s.n. [Tulloss 8-15-86-J] (RET
MISSOURI—Ste. Genevieve Co. -
W of Ste. Genevieve, Hawn St.
Pk. [37.8337° N/ 90.2416° W, 262 m], 9.vii.2011
Patrick Harvey et al. s.n. (RET 477-2);
Pickle Creek [37.8057° N/ 90.2962°, 282m],
11.viii.2013 P. Harvey s.n. [mushroomobserver
(RET 561-1, nrITS-LSU seq'd.).
JERSEY—Hunterdon Co. - Oldwick, 11.viii.1986 Roger Phillips & Susan Hopkins [Phillips 3323]
(RET 088-4), 31.vii.1991
Susan Kibby s.n. [Tulloss 7-31-91-SK1] (RET
Mercer Co. - Hopewell Twp., off Carter Rd., woods behind
AT&T/Lucent research labs [40°21’39” N/ 74°43’29”
W, 63 m], 27.vii.1982 R. E. Tulloss 7-27-82-A
(RET 217-5), 10.viii.1982 R. E. Tulloss 8-10-82-A
(RET 213-9), 17.vii.1984 R. E. Tulloss 7-17-84-B (RET
??-??), -C (RET 050-5),
19.vii.1984 R. E. Tulloss 7-19-84-A (RET 048-10), -B
(RET ??-??), 22.vii.1984
R. E. Tulloss 7-22-84-B (RET ??-??), -N (RET ??-??),
29.vii.1984 R. E. Tulloss 7-29-84-F
Monmouth Co. - Upper Freehold, ca.
Imlaystown, Clayton Co. Pk., Bridges Tr. [40°09’26” N/
74°30’10” W, 75 m], 19.viii.2012 M. A. & R. E.
Tulloss 8-19-12-D (RET 508-9).
Morris Co. - Mendham, Meadowood Twp. Pk. [40°47'31" N/
74°38'43" W, 214 m], 19.vii.1992 Robert Hosh s.n.
[Tulloss 7-19-92-A] (RET 063-2, nrITS & nrLSU seq'd.),
19.vii.1992 NJMA member s.n. [Tulloss 7-19-92-E]
NEW YORK—Delaware Co. - Emmon’s Bog,
17.viii.1985 William Williams s.n. [Tulloss
8-17-85-D] (RET 101-5).
Tompkins Co. - Ithaca,
27.viii.1981 S. S. Ristich s.n. [Tulloss
NORTH CAROLINA—Wake Co. - Raleigh,
Umpstead St. Pk. [35.8725º N/ 78.761º W, 125 m],
11.vi.2017 Geoff Balme s.n. [mushroomobserver
(RET 797-4, nrITS & nrLSU seq'd.), 2.vii.2017 G. Balme
(RET 798-10, nrITS & nrLSU seq'd.), 4.vii.2017 Geoff
Balme s.n. [mushroomobserver
#280818] (RET 799-3, nrITS & nrLSU seq'd.).
PENNSYLVANIA—Carbon Co. - Lehighton,
Ukrainian Homestead, 22.vii.1996 Charles W. Peale
s.n. [Tulloss 7-22-96-CPW1] (RET 324-2), s.n.
[Tulloss 7-22-96-CWP2] (RET 324-3).
Luzerne Co. - unkn. loc.,
vii.2006 David Wasilewski s.n. (RET 398-5).
SOUTH CAROLINA—Oconee Co. - Sumter Nat.
For., Stumphouse Tunnel Pk., 17.vii.1986 David C.
& R. E. Tulloss 7-17-86-A (RET 241-4).
VIRGINIA—Lancaster Co. - Lancaster,
Hickory Hollow Nature Tr., 1.ix.1985 David C.,
Estelle H. & R. E. Tulloss 9-1-85-F
(RET 205-9), -G (RET 206-1).
WEST VIRGINIA—Berkeley Co. -
Hedgeville, "Sleepy Hollow," 1.viii.1976 U. Weiss
s.n. (BPI 14459). Greenbrier Co. - Greenbrier
St. For., 26.viii.1980 S. L. Stephenson 187c (FWVA);
Monongahela Nat. For., Sherwood Lake, 31.viii.1982
R. E. Tulloss 8-31-82-C (RET 214-10). Tucker
Co. - Fernow Exp. For., Fork Mtn. Rd., 19.ix.1992
R. P. Bhatt & A. Kumar FMR-3 (FWVA).
WISCONSIN—Sheboygan Co. - Greenbush,
16.ix.1990 Alan Parker s.n. (RET 034-7).
Specimens of this species often suggest a small specimen of A. jacksonii without the orange-red fibrils on the stipe, with a significantly smaller volval sac, and with yellow and brown instead of red or red-orange hues on the pileus.
a pileus that is lemon yellow at the margin and deeper yellow (to orangish yellow) over the disc
gills that are whitish to white at maturity
spores that are smaller and somewhat rounder on average
a volval sac even larger than that of A. jacksonii
an usually larger basidiome overall.
The present species is assignable to Amanita stirps Hemibapha. To distinguish this taxa from others in the stirps, a key can be found here.
Mary Banning, writing in 1888 (Peck, 1892), apparently described A. banningiana as an occasional form of "A. caesarea": "Sometimes the pileus is . . . burnt sienna color with yellowish margin. It varies also in size."
In regional keys and correspondence I have referred to this mushroom as both Amanita sp. 16 and Amanita sp. N12.
—R. E. Tulloss
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can be found here.
"Mary Banning Slender Caesar"
1. Amanita banningiana, Ohio, U.S.A.
2. Amanita banningiana, New York [state], U.S.A.
3. Amanita banningiana, Hopewell Twp., Mercer Co., New Jersey, U.S.A.
4. Amanita banningiana, Hopewell Twp., Mercer Co., New Jersey, U.S.A.
Walter Sturgeon - (1) Ohio, U.S.A.
RET - (2) New York (state), U.S.A.; (3-5) ca. Hopewell Township, Mercer Co., New Jersey, U.S.A.
Each spore data set is intended to comprise a set of measurements from a single specimen made by a single observer;
and explanations prepared for this site talk about specimen-observer pairs associated with each data set.
Combining more data into a single data set is non-optimal because it obscures observer differences
(which may be valuable for instructional purposes, for example) and may obscure instances in which
a single collection inadvertently contains a mixture of taxa.