The following text may make multiple use of each data field.
The field may contain magenta text presenting data from a type study
and/or revision of other original material cited in the protolog of the present taxon.
Macroscopic descriptions in magenta are a combination of data from the protolog and
additional observations made on the exiccata during revision of the cited original
The same field may also contain black text, which is data from a revision of the
species (including non-type material and/or material not cited in the protolog).
Paragraphs of black text will be labeled if further subdivision of
this text is appropriate.
Olive text indicates a specimen that has not been
thoroughly examined (for example, for microscopic details) and marks other places in the text
where data is missing or uncertain.
The following material not directly from the protolog of the present taxon is based upon (Tulloss 1994) and other original research by R. E. Tulloss as well as selected information (always specifically cited) from (Pegler 1983).
Tulloss (1994): up to 90 mm wide, olive brown, convex, subumbonate, subviscid, smooth; context not described; margin sulcate-striate (approx. 0.5R); universal veil absent.
Tulloss (1994): 90 × 13 mm, narrowing upward, decorated with fibrils; context hollow; exannulate; universal veil disappearing.
Tulloss (1994): 65 - 130 μm thick, with upper highly gelatinized region [suprapellis] hyaline and colorless and with lower region [subpellis] more yellow than [adjacent] pileus context in KOH; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 2.0 - 7.0 μm wide, subradially arranged, beoming disordered near pileus context, somewhat loosely interwoven and separated by gelatinized material, occasionally with yellow subrefractive walls; vascular hyphae 1.5 - 10.5 μm wide, without dominant orientation, common, some at surface, but not gelatinized.
Tulloss (1994): filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 2.1 - 14.7 μm wide, branching, interwoven in loose disorderly manner, occasionally with yellow subrefractive walls; acrophysalides, dominating, ovoid to ellipsoid, thin-walled, up to 60 × 37 μm; vascular hyphae 0.8 - 11.2 μm wide, branching, common.
Tulloss (1994): bilateral, with central stratum very poorly rehydrating, [with] angle of divergence very shallow at first then curving outward smoothly to angle near 60°, often with curve continued in basal third or half of basidia [indicative of poor rehydration of the subhymenium and hymenium], with slightly inflated cells intercalary in subhymenial base (e.g. 24 × 13.3 μm); filamentous undifferentiated hyphae 1.9 - 5.5 μm wide, branching, occasionally constricted at septa; divergent, terminal inflated cells not observed; vascular hyphae 1.9 - 5.6 μm wide,branching, having irregular outline.
non-type: wcs = 30 - 40 μm (central stratum well-inflated); branching structures of subhymenial base, including only partially inflated and uninflated intercalary cells; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 2.4 - 6.0 μm wide.
Tulloss (1994): wst-near = 15 - 40; wst-far = 30 - 55 μm; inflated cells moderately plentiful [in two to three (or four) layers] to sparse, clavate to ovoid to ellipsoid to branched, up to 17.0 × 11.0 μm, occasionally giving rise to basidia, with basidia arising (for the most part) from plentiful uninflated hyphal segments (with these latter arising from inflated cells or [apparently] from hyphae originating in central stratum), with shortest basidioles arising from uninflated hyphal segment or short obclavate cell or irregular (branched) cell with base[s] of such basidioles one-half to one and one-half cells [below] base of longest nearby basidium/-ole.
non-type: (rehydration better than in holotype material) wst-near = 20 - 40 μm; wst-far = 40 - 50 μm; quite clearly not pseudoparenchymatous (cellular), includes uninflated hyphal segments and branched elements.
Tulloss (1994): (22-) 31 - 63 × 9.1 - 13.3 μm, thin-walled, 4- and occasionally 2-sterigmate; sterigmata up to 4.9 × 3.5 μm (on 2-spored basidium); clamps not observed.
On pileus: very small patch of extensively gelatinized hyphae and inflated cells; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 1.4 - 4.2 μm wide, in fragments, colorless; inflated cells elongate pyriform to ellipsoid to ovoid to clavate, up to 30 × 20 μm, orange-brown when gelatinized, yellow-brown otherwise, in clusters, thin-walled, apparently dominant; vascular hyphae not observed. At stipe base: absent.
Tulloss (1994): longitudinally acrophysalidic; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 1.3 - 6.7 μm wide, branching, dominant; acrophysalides thin-walled, up to 105 × 35 μm or larger; vascular hyphae 6.3 - 11.2 μm wide, not common, serpentine, clamps rare[??] or absent.
Tulloss (1994): [40/1/1] (8.4-) 9.8 - 13.3 (-14.3) × (7.1-) 7.7 - 10.5 (-11.9) µm, (L = 11.2 µm; W = 9.1 mm; Q = (1.08-) 1.09 - 1.40 (-1.42); Q = 1.24), hyaline, colorless, thin-walled, smooth, inamyloid, subglobose to broadly ellipsoid, occasionally ellipsoid, usually adaxially flattened; apiculus sublateral, prominent, cylindric to truncate-conic; contents guttulate; color in deposit not recorded.
composite from all specimens examined: [60/2/2] (8.4-) 9.8 - 13.2 (-14.3) × (7.1-) 7.8 - 10.5 (-11.9) µm, (L = 10.7 - 11.2 µm; L’ = 11.0 mm; W = 9.1 - 9.4 µm; W’ = 9.2 mm; Q = (1.05-) 1.08 - 1.36 (-1.42); Q = 1.14 - 1.24; Q’ = 1.21), hyaline, colorless, thin-walled, smooth, inamyloid, subglobose to broadly ellipsoid, occasionally ellipsoid, usually adaxially flattened; apiculus sublateral, prominent, cylindric to truncate-conic; contents mono- to multiguttulate; color in deposit not recorded.
from protolog: Trinidad: At sea level. In sandy soil in forest.
from Pegler (1983): Guadeloupe: In degraded mesophytic forest. Martinique: At 100± - 300± m elev. In secondary to subclimactic, xerophytic forest after 1.1 mm of rainfall or in meophytic forest or in semi-deciduous forest or associated with Coccoloba diversifolia or in secondary meophytic forest.
protolog: TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO: TRINIDAD—Quinam, 4.xi.1949 R. W. G. Dennis 286 (holotype, K).
Tulloss (1994): TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO: TRINIDAD—Quinam, 4.xi.1949 R. W. G. Dennis 286 (holotype, K).
Pegler (1983: 287): GUADELOUPE: Basse Terre, Gourbeyre, 21.x.1977 Pegler 3093 (K); Village, Trace de Crêtes, 24.x.1977 Pegler 3101 (K), 3119 (K).
MARTINIQUE: Trinité, 6.x.1975 J. P. Fiard 604A (??); 31.x.1975 J. P. Fiard 608A (??); Morne Jeanette, 300 m elev., 20.viii.1976 J. P. Fiard 608B; St. Esprit, Fond Masson, 100 m elev., 9.ix.1977 D. N. Pegler 2673 (K); St. Joseph, Rivière Rouge Pierre Denis, 18.ix.1977 D. N. Pegler 2778 (K); Tartane, La Caravelle, 22.ix.1977 D. N. Pegler 2823b (K).
RET: MARTINIQUE: Tartane, La Caravelle, 22.ix.1977 D. N. Pegler 2823b (K).
The illustration in Dennis (1970) shows rather long marginal striations and a stipe that is not much longer than the pileus diameter. The stipe is depicted completely devoid of universal veil material [and none was found on the stipe in the holotype].
The holotype was poorly dried and is not now  in good condition. For this reason, I have relied to some degree on information from prior examination of the specimen by Pegler (1983) and Bas (notes deposited with specimen in K). Nevertheless, I also examined all tissues myself in as much detail as [the material permitted].
Neither Dr. Bas nor Dr. Pegler found universal veil material on the specimen. Dr. Bas' notes include mention of a few hyphae found on the lower stipe surface that might have come from the inner surface of the universal veil. Serendipitously, I found a minute patch of extensively gelatinized [universal veil] material mixed with soil particles on the pileipellis near the disc. I believe this to represent the structure of the inner surface of the universal veil. The interior of the universal veil may have larger inflated cells than I noted. This structure is consistent with that of the universal veil in recently collected materil from Martinique and Guadeloupe assigned to A. antillana by Pegler (1983). Pegler described the universal veil based on the new material as "membranous, but very fragile, thin, ochraceous brown, soon lost." As to its anatomy, Pegler reported "narrow, branched, hyaline hyphae, 3-7 μm wide, producing large, terminal sphaerocysts, 18-55 μm wide, with brown vacuolar pigment."
I examined one of the collections cited by Pegler [see above] and believe it to represent A. antillana. [My observations have been given above in appropriate data fields.] The subhymenium is not pseudoparenchymatous as Pegler said, but comprised of a mixture of uninflated, partially inflated, and inflated elements as in the holotype....
Pegler's illustration of the present species (Pegler, 1978: 289, fig. 51E) displays rather short marginal striations in contrast to Dennis' illustration cited above. I examined this character in the exsiccata of the holotype and Pegler 2823b and found that the striation[s] were relatively short in both cases.
After an extensive search for clamps in all tissues of the holotype, I found no more than three or four possible clamps; but, because of the condition of the material, I am not certain of these observations. Neither Pegler's nor Bas' previous examination of the type resulted in the finding of clamps.
—R. E. Tulloss
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