This species has long been called Amanita rubescens by mycologists who collect in North America from the Great Plains eastward, north of Mexico.
The cap is 62 - 120 mm wide, pale yellowish tan or pale tannish yellow at first, becoming pale tan, eventually with brown or umbrinous tones overall, becoming red-brown to wine red in wounds, tacky at first, broadly conic at first, then very broadly campanulate to subhemispheric, then planoconvex, and finally planar. The cap's flesh is white, bruising pinkish to sordid pinkish and then as on the surface. The cap's margin is curved inward at first, and striate only faintly at maturity or in age if at all. Remnants of volva are present as warts and groups of warts; these are subpyramidal, often densely distributed, at first pallid yellow to yellow, becoming tan to pale brown with red-brown high points, easily breakable, and easily removed.
The gills are free to narrowly adnate or narrowly adnate with short tooth descending the top of the stem, with decurrent line on the top of the stem extending down to the stem's ring, subcrowded, off-white to pale cream to pale yellowish cream in mass, and pale cream to very pale yellowish cream in side view. The short gills are subtruncate to rounded truncate to attenuate, unevenly distributed, of diverse lengths, plentiful, and infrequently free from both the stem and the cap's margin.
The stem is 55 - 134 × 8 - 14 mm, whitish or pallid, and bruising as the cap does. The stem's bulb is 20 - 27 × 16 - 28 mm, often turnip-shaped, occasionally splitting vertically and then with the split usually extending up the stem. The flesh of the stem is white, staining/bruising as in the cap's flesh, brick red or deep red-brown in larva tunnels, and solid to firmly stuffed to hollow. The ring on the stem is superior, membranous, occasionally rather thin, persistent, white to off-white to pale cream above, the same color or sometimes yellow to pale yellow or yellowish pale tan below, bruising as in the rest of the mushroom, subflocculose or felted-subflocculose to smooth below, rather large and skirtlike at first, then tearing and collapsing on stipe, and sometimes with edge thickened with yellowish or tan volval material. The volva on the stem is the same color as that on pileus; this material is easily lost during collection.
The odor is faintly pleansantly fungoid or absent.
The spores measure (7.0-) 7.3 - 9.5 (-9.8) × (5.6-)
5.9 - 7.0 (-7.3) µm and are subglobose to broadly
ellipsoid to ellipsoid (rarely globose) and
amyloid. Clamps are not found at bases of
Due to delays in data processing at GenBank, some accession numbers may lead to unreleased (pending) pages.
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This page is under reconstruction. Please excuse our digital dust. Genetic evidence requires the subdivision of what has simply been called "rubescens" in eastern North America into a number of genetically distinct taxa. As new evidence accumulates, collection data from this pages is being moved to more than ten new pages given provision names or temporary code names. One of the new taxa will eventually be situated here.
Olive text indicates a specimen that has not been
thoroughly examined (for example, for microscopic details) and marks other places in the text
where data is missing or uncertain.
The following material is based on original research of R. E. Tulloss.
62 - 120 mm wide, pale yellowish tan or pale tannish yellow at first, becoming pale tan, eventually with brown or umbrinous tones overall, becoming red-brown to wine red in wounds, broadly conic at first, then very broadly campanulate to subhemispheric, then planoconvex, finally planar, dull to subsatiny, tacky at first; context white, bruising pinkish to sordid pinkish and then as on pileipellis, 8 - 11 mm thick at stipe, thinning evenly to margin; margin incurved at first, then decurved, nonstriate (except rather faintly at maturity or in age), nonappendiculate; universal veil as warts and confluent warts, subpyramidal, often densely distributed, at first pallid to yellow [infrequently as intensely yellow as 3A7 (Tulloss 8-4-96-E)], becoming tan to pale brown with red-brown high points, areolate, minutely verruculose or with striate sides, fibrillose-flocculose or more compact, friable, detersile.
free to narrowly adnate or narrowly adnate with short tooth, with decurrent line on stipe apex extending down to partial veil, subcrowded, off-white to pale cream to pale yellowish cream in mass, pale cream to very pale yellowish cream in side view, 8 - 10 mm broad, broadest at about mid-radius, with margin very slightly uneven, ventricose or with lower edge straight; lamellulae subtruncate to rounded truncate to attenuate, unevenly distributed, of diverse lengths, plentiful, infrequently free from both stipe and pileus margin.
55 - 134 × 8 - 14 mm, whitish or pallid, bruising as on pileipellis, narrowing upward, flaring at apex or not, becoming satiny or having densely placed raised fribrils or fibrillose scales, longitudinally striatulate below partial veil, with surface sometimes breaking up into coarse recurved scales; bulb 20 - 27 × 16 - 28 mm, napiform, occasionally splitting longitudinally and then split extending up stipe; context white, staining/bruising as in pileus context, brick red or deep red-brown in larva tunnels, solid to firmly stuffed (with densely packed longitudinally fibrillose white material) to hollow, with 3.5 - 5 mm wide central cylinder; partial veil superior, membranous, occasionally rather thin, persistent, white to off-white to pale cream above, concolorous or sometimes yellow to pale yellow or yellowish pale tan below, bruising as in remainder of basidiome, subflocculose or felted-subflocculae to smooth below, rather large and skirtlike at first, then tearing and collapsing on stipe, sometimes with edge thickened with yellowish or tan universal veil material; universal veil concolorous with that on pileus, easily lost in substrate during collection.
Odor none to faintly pleansantly fungoid. Taste not recorded.
Spot test for laccase (syringaldazine) - positive on bottom surface of bulb only in young basidiocme (negative elsewhere); in mature basidiome, negative throughout. Spot test for tyrosinase (paracresol) - In young basidiome, positive in pileus context only under pileipellis, on center of lamella, and in much of stipe context except for interior of bulb (negative elsewhere); in mature basidiome, positive throughout pileus context and stipe context except for interior of bulb (negative elsewhere). H2SO4 (conc.) - reddish pink on lamellae almost immediately, negative on pileipellis and in context of bulb, negative at first and then pale yellowish after 3 - 4 min. in stipe and pileus contexts; all color gone after 18 min. or less.
bilateral; wcs = 30 - 35+ µm; subhymenial base not strongly differentiated from subhymenium—with inflated cells (elongate to ellipsoid to clavate to to subglobose, thin-walled, up to 31 × 26 µm, with major axis dominantly perpendicular to central stratum) becoming reduced in size gradually from central stratum to subhymenium, with angle of divergence shallow (≤30°); filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae ? µm wide, branching, with slightly inflated intercalary segments in central stratum; divergent, terminal inflated cells not observed; vascular hyphae ? µm wide, ?.
ca. pseudoparenchymatous (cellular), although some branching relationship between cells visible, with cells in ? to ? layers, with wst-near = 25 - 50 µm and wst-far = 40? - 65 µm, with basidia arising from small inflated cells and slightly inflated short hyphal segments and slightly inflated branched cells.
1. Amanita amerirubescens, elements of hymenium, subhymenium, subhymenial base, and central stratum.
Solitary to subgregarious to gregarious. New Jersey: In sand of Pinus-Quercus barrens or in sandy loam of Quercus forest or in wet loam of mixed deciduous forest including Acer, Betula, Carpinus caroliniana, Carya ovata, Fagus grandifolia, Liquidambar styraciflua, and Quercus. Newfoundland & Labrador: In mixed woods dominated by conifers. Virginia: under Fraxinus in hard packed dirt.
GEORGIA—Unkn. Co. - N of Commerce, rest stop on Rte. 85, 14.vii.1983 M. A. King & R. E. Tulloss 7-14-83-A (RET 220-4).
INDIANA—Monroe Co. - SE of Bloomington, Lake Monroe, Paynetown St. Recr. Area [39.0941° N/ 86.4476° W, 174 m], 1.ix.2012 S. Russell 3844 [mushroomobserver.org #108033] (RET 530-5).
MASSACHUSETTS—Hampden Co. - Springfield, Forest Pk., 30.vii.1986 Ellen Greer s.n. [Tulloss 7-30-86-EG4] (RET 465-3).
NEW JERSEY—Burlington Co. - ca. Chatsworth, Franklin Parker Preserve, RRE sector, 28.viii.2010 Nina Burghardt s.n. [Tulloss 8-28-10-B] (RET 450-5).
Mercer Co. - Lawrence Twp., Eggerts Crossing Rd., 15.vii.1982 N. Macdonald s.n. [Tulloss 7-15-82-D] (RET 215-10). Middlesex Co. - Jamesburg Twp., Jamesburg Twp. Pk., ca. Helmetta [40°23’07” N/ 74°25’48” W], 9.viii.1981 M. A. King, A. Norarevian & R. E. Tulloss 8-9-81-D (RET 162-5), 26.ix.1987 D. C. & R. E. Tulloss 9-26-87-V (NYS; RET 020-6), 12.viii.1981 R. E. Tulloss 8-12-81-I (RET 162-4). Monmouth Co. - Allaire St. Pk., 10.viii.1980 R. E. Tulloss 8-10-80-A (RET 393-1); Shark River Co. Pk. [40°12’18” N/ 74°05’44” W, 16 m], 30.viii.1998 C. Conover, S. E. K. & R. E. Tulloss [Tulloss 8-30-98-B] (RET ??); Upper Freehold, Assunpink Wildlife Mgmt. Area, 3.vii.1981 Mary A. King & R. E. Tulloss 7-3-81-D (RET 176-2), 4.vii.1981 R. E. Tulloss 7-4-81-F (RET 114-6), 14.vii.1982 R. E. Tulloss 7-14-82-A (RET ??).
NEW YORK—Franklin Co. - Floodwood Mtn.
Rd. [44.3476° N/ 74.4424° W, 501 m], 12.viii.2011
participant NEMF2011 s.n. [RET 8-12-11-H] (RET
OHIO—Somers Twp., Pleasant Vineyard
Retreat Ctr., sect. 20, Swan-Beatty Rd.,
29.vii.1992 M. A. Vincent 5628 (MU f39212; RET
SOUTH CAROLINA—Oconee Co. - Seneca
[34°46'09" N/ 82°57'55" W, 263 m],
28.vi.1985 R. E. Tulloss
6-28-85-B (RET 054-5).
Co. - Pownal, "late" ix.198(5?)
Buck McAdoo 45#11 (RET 081-7).
double click in markup mode to edit.
Unlikely to be sequenced:
Co. - VPI horticultural farm, 9.x.1975 S. L.
Stephenson 77 (FWVA n.v.).
WEST VIRGINIA—Marion Co. - unkn. loc.,
s.d. S. L. Stephenson 380 (FWVA n.v.).
Pocahontas Co. - Cranberry Glades, 6.vi.1981
G. Bills 72 (BPI n.v.). Tucker Co. -
Fernow Exp. For., 4.ix.1992 S. L. Stephenson, R. P.
Bhatt & A. Kumar WS13-1 (FWVA n.v.).
—R. E. Tulloss
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"Eastern American Blusher"
1. Amanita amerirubescens, Great Smoky Mtns. Nat. Pk., U.S.A.
2. Amanita amerirubescens, Franklin Parker Preserve, Burlington Co., New Jersey, U.S.A.
1. Amanita amerirubescens, elements of hymenium, subhymenium, subhymenial base, and central stratum.
RET - (1) Great Smoky Mountains National Park, U.S.A.
(2) ca. Chatsworth, Franklin Parker Preserve, Burlington County, New Jersey, U.S.A.
(3) Assunpink Wildlife Management Area, Monmouth County, New Jersey, U.S.A.
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and explanations prepared for this site talk about specimen-observer pairs associated with each data set.
Combining more data into a single data set is non-optimal because it obscures observer differences
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