1. Amanita alauda from Singapore, painted by E. J. H. Corner
All information is taken from Corner and Bas (1962).
This species was named for the lark because of the variegated brown cap.
The cap is 30 mm wide, sepia or pale purplish umber to mouse-colored (darker
over the stem) and streaked by innate dark fibrils
(especially near the margin), smooth, and viscid. Its flesh is white.
The gills are free, crowded, white then cream, 3 mm broad, and number about
65. The short gills are attenuate and are unevenly
distributed, with at most one between a given pair of adjacent gills.
The stipe if 55 × 5 mm, cylindric, white, smooth, firm, solid, and has a bulbous base 8 - 9 mm wide. The annulus is apical and about 8 mm wide, white, membranous, finely striate above, and soon collapses on the stipe. The limbate volva is membranous, about 10 mm high, free for about half its height, white, and splits into irregular lobes.
The spores from dried material measure 7.1 - 8.4 (-9.2) × 6.3 - 8.3 µm (from
fresh material, 9.0 - 11.0 × 8.0 - 10.0 µm) and are
globose to subglobose and amyloid. Clamps were not
observed at the bases of basidia.
Amanita alauda was originally described from Singapore.
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L (in liquid)
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and/or revision of other original material cited in the protolog of the present taxon.
Macroscopic descriptions in magenta are a combination of data from the protolog and
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Olive text indicates a specimen that has not been
thoroughly examined (for example, for microscopic details) and marks other places in the text
where data is missing or uncertain.
The following material is derived entirely from the protolog of the present taxon.
from protolog: 30 mm wide, sepia or pale purplish umber to mouse-colored, darker over disk, streaked by innate dark fibrils, especially near margin, becoming umbonate concave, eventually with uplifted margin [per figure], smooth, viscid; context white; margin non-striate; universal veil absent.
from protolog: free, crowded, white then cream, 3 mm broad, as 66 primaries; lamellulae attenuate, 0 - 1 between each otherwise adjacent pair of lamellae.
from protolog: 55 × 5 mm, cylindric, white, smooth; context white, solid, firm; bulb as subbulbous stem base; partial veil apical, pendent, membranous, white, ca. 8 mm from point of attachment to edge, finely striate above, soon collapsing; universal veil limbate, membranous, white, 10 × 8 - 9 mm, with lower half connected with base of stipe, with upper half forming irregularly split limb with indistinct lobes.
from protolog: about 200 µm thick; suprapellis 75 - 100 μm thick, gelatinized; subpellis 100 - 125 μm thick, ungelatinized; filamentous hyphae irregularly disposed, with slight radial tendency, with tip cells uninflated and brown; ungelatinizing hyphae brown, embedded in suprapellis. [Note: Brown, ungelatinized hyphae have been observed in the gelatinized suprapellis of other tropical Amanita taxa. This raises the issue of whether these hyphae might be foreign to the amanitas.—ed.]
from protolog: bilateral; central stratum very distinct, including clavate to cylindric, often terminal inflated cells up to 120 × 25 µm; subhymenial base rather indistinctly divergent and narrow, inclluding scattered ellipsoid to subcylindric cells up to 60 × 30 µm.
from protolog: about 40 µm wide, cellular-subramose, with cells up 10 - 20 µm wide, with innermost cells hardly larger than those at base of basidia.
from protolog: 35 - 45 × 10 - 13 µm, 4-sterigmate, with sterigmata ca. 5 µm long; clamps not observed.
from protolog: On pileus: absent. In volval limb: filamentous hyphae dominating, 3 - 15 (-25) µm wide, interwoven, sublongitudinally oriented; inflated cells scarce, up to 100 µm wide, limited to interior.
from protolog: longitudinally acrophyslidic; acrophysalides cylindric to clavate, up to 370 × 50 µm sometimes with short chain of subtending cells of similar form; at stipe surface, filamentous hyphae 3 - 6 µm wide, longitudinally oriented.
lamella edge tissue
from protolog: inflated cells scattered, clavate to ellipsoid, up to 30 × 20 µm.
from protolog: [-/-/-] 7.1 - 8.4 (-9.2) × 6.3 - 8.3 μm,
(Q = 1.0 - 1.15; Q = 1.05 - 1.10),
hyaline, colorless, smooth, thin-walled, amyloid, globose to subglobose;
apiculus proportionately small; contents cloudy, opalescent; color in deposit not recorded. [Fresh spores reported as 9.0 - 11.0 × 8.0 - 10.0 μm.]
no information reported.
from protolog: SINGAPORE: Botanic Gardens, 4.xii.1940 E. J. H. Corner s.n. (holotype, L, specimens in liquid and watercolor drawing).
from protolog: "Among the dark-colored species with globulose spores of section Phalloideae, particularly A. murinacea Pat. (1928: 29) from Madagascar and A. fuliginea Hongo (1953: 69, fig. 1; colored plate in Imazeki & Hongo, 1957: pl. 18 fig. 103) from Japan seem to be comparable to the present species. The former is insufficiently described. It is not clear whether its mouse-gray cap is streaked or not. However, it seems to be different on account of the strongly bulbous base of the stipe, the dry, silky pileus, and the larger size. Amanita fuliginea differs by the ring turning brownish, the brownish squamulose-fibrillose stipe and the less streaky, subviscid to dry pileus.
"A remarkable feature of A. alauda is the viscid cuticle giving a strong impression of being fibrillose, which is caused by the rather wide, dark brown hyphae embedded in the gelatinous matter of the upper layer."
—R. E. Tulloss
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Corner & Bas
"Lark Death Cap"
1. Amanita alauda from Singapore, painted by E. J. H. Corner
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Prof. E. J. H. Corner (Singapore, illustration from original description
(Corner & Bas, 1962)
reproduced by courtesy of Persoonia, Leiden, the Netherlands.)
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